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OVLR IKKIi 01 JHL Will Lll)(.[v StMdOl, IK1SKIN 







New York and London 

Copyright, 1924, by 


To the new generation of teachers who are to cairy on 
the work so nobly begun by the pioneers, this book is affection- 
ately dedicated The men and -women whose lives are recorded 
here labored in the hope that a better day waa to dawn 
through a better type of education To the cause of childhood 
they gave the last full measure of devotion To it they con- 
secrated their lives To those who are to follow on in their 
footsteps, they leave the rich heritage of faith that the best is 
yet to be in the kindergarten and in the world 


Circumstance doubtless determines in part the 
course of history An intellectual interpretation 
of the ma] or changes in the development of 
human institutions is likely to give much weight 
to factors beyond human control or to motives 
and ideas moving obscurely in the minds of many 
men without definite leadership on the part of 
single pei sons But pioneers the great men and 
women of history, even if they were not greatly 
known to fame have played their part as well 
Individual devotion and individual effort count 
for much m social progress They count for more, 
perhaps, in the inspiration they give to those who 
carry the work of institutions and causes beyond 
their initial stages 

The kindergarten movement was part of an 
educational and social revolution, and its leaders 
must be grouped with those who developed an 
education new in its outlook, purpose, content, 
and spirit Education in general before the 
nineteenth century was disciplinary, restrictive, 

vul Foreword 

formal, and but little adjusted to the natural de- 
velopment of human beings The nineteenth 
century was a period of fundamental change of 
many sorts The romantic spirit, a new sym- 
pathy for the suffering, the weak, and the 
oppressed, a new devotion to human good, all 
appeared in company with the establishment of 
democracy, the development of science, and the 
shifting of industry from its center in the home 
and the community toward its piesent organiza- 
tion In religion and education and in other 
forms of social effort, many voices were raised to 
protest against the imposition of rules, laws, con- 
finements, and restrictions, and to plead for the 
development of powers and purposes to take 
their place The fundamental doctrine of the 
kindergarten, education as development, stood in 
accord with the whole tiend of the times 

How to work out in America an education for 
the youngest children that should start them self- 
actively, as growing organisms, moving toward 
purposive command of their own lives this was 
the problem of the leaders in the kindergarten 
movement The doctrine and practice estab- 
lished by Froebel were incomplete, but his prin- 
ciples were sound The kindergarten leaders in 

Foreword ix 

this country had the difficult task of interpreting 
the founder's thought and of modifying his 
practice in the light of new knowledge concerning 
the growth of children and the possibilities of 
education under modern conditions One of the 
very difficulties of their task lay in the fact that 
the knowledge they had to acquire and apply was 
not yet in existence They had to establish the 
kindergarten as best they could, adapting it 
slowly to growing communities with changing 
ideals, in the light of such facts as they could get 
concerning human growth and the instruments of 

The task is not yet finished, for the science of 
education is still in its infancy and the organiza- 
tion of American education is far from perfect 
But to the pioneers of the kindergarten, American 
education owes as much, perhaps, as to any other 
group that helped to develop the new education 
out of the old , and the present firmly established 
place of the kindergarten as an institution is due 
to the effort and devotion of these men and 
women quite as much as it is due to the forces 
and circumstances of their time 

Dean of Harvard Graduate School of Education 


The Committee of Nineteen has delegated to 
three of its members the responsibility of secur- 
ing, arranging, and editing the material for this 

The Editing Committee has been fortunate in 
securing so notable a group of writers The 
names of the authors as well as the names of the 
Pioneers give distinction to the book 

Each chapter contains a biogiaphical sketch 
of one of the Pioneeis, supplemented by an appre- 
ciation of his or her personality and educational 
influence This treatment gives the book value 
as a history of the kindergarten movement in 
America, and will make it useful as a textbook 
in couises in history of education 

The personal touch gives mteiest for the gen- 
eral reader who wishes to know more of the life 
and work of the men and women who have borne 
so large a part in fostering the development of 
progressive education in our countiy The last 
paragraphs in the account of Mrs Kate Douglas 

Editor's Preface 

Wiggm were written by one of the editors, as 
were certain parts of the sketch of Miss Haven 

"Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America" 
is sent out in the hope that it may help to promote 
the aims of the International Kindergarten 
Union, to extend knowledge of the kindergarten 
movement, to secure higher standards of work, and 
to advocate the right of childhood to the best 
that educational guidance can supply 


Editing Committee 


FOREWORD Henry W Holmes v 

Dean of Graduate School of Education, Harvard University 

, EDITORS' PREFACE Caroline D Aborn 

Catharine R Watkins 
'Lucy Wheelock j 

INTRODUCTION . AnmeLaws , xv 



IN THE UNITED STATES Elisabeth Harrison 3 



Miss PEABODY AS I KNEW HER Lucy Wheelock 26 


BARNARD James L Hughes 3g 


BOELTE Carolyn C Mcleney 84 

MATILDA H KRIEGE Caroline D Abom 91 


A TRIBUTE Charles W Eliot 100 

DERGARTEN Laura F%sher 103 

xiv Contents 

MARY J GARLAND MatgaretJ Stannard 109 

ANNE L PAGE James L Hughes 123 


KINDERGARTNER NtitaC VandcwalLcr 134 

CAROLINE T HAVEN Fein Adlct 147 

A LOVING APPRECIATION Hortensc Orcutt 151 


HAVEN Ella C Elder, Mwa 

C Htlhs, and 

others I $5 



SUSAN EtizABErn BLOW Laura Fisher 184 

ALICE H PUTNAM Bertha Payne Newell 204 

ANNA E BRYAN Patty Smith Ihll 223 

ANNA OGDEN Stella Louise Wood 231 

LUCRETIA W TREAT Clara Wheeler 334 

JOSEPHINE JARVIS Eva B Whitinoic 240 



EMMA MARWEDEL Earl Barnes 265 

B COOPER Anna K Stovall . 270 



Smith 283 


WIGGIN ... , , Lucy Whedock > . 296 


Bas-ielief over door of the Wheelock School, 

Boston Frontispiece 


Elizabeth Palmer Peabody . 32 

Dr Henry Barnard in his library 64 

Maria Kraus-Boelte . 80 

Caiohne T Haven 152 

Susan Elizabeth Blow . . . 192 

Alice Harvey Putnam .... 220 

Kate Douglas Wiggin .... . 284 


In the introduction to this volume of memoirs 
prepared by the Committee of Nineteen of the 
International Kindergarten Union, it may be well 
to state briefly something of the origin and work 
of the committee, and of the organization which 
created it 

The International Kindergarten Union came 
into existence in the year previous to the World's 
Fair, held in Chicago m 1893 That great ex- 
position offered an unequaled opportunity for 
bringing into close touch widely scattered groups, 
individuals, and interests, as representatives from 
all parts of the world attended it to present 
either in material form or by written or spoken 
word the signal achievements of the world up 
to that time 

The new aspect of child-education embodied 
in the kindergarten movement was included as 
one of the topics of discussion in the International 
Congress held during the exposition 

At the time of the formation of the Interna- 


tional Kindergarten Union, closer bonds of rela- 
tionship weie being forged between nations than 
had theretofore existed, and international affairs 
were beginning to occupy many minds, with the 
effect of creating a wider outlook upon educa- 
tional as well as other lines of work and interest 

The expiessed aim of the newly formed organ- 
ization was to assist in the establishment of the 
highest standards of training foi those who were 
to undertake the education of the very youngest 
childi en, through the medium of the kindergarten 
movement, which seemed to be best fitted for the 
purpose , to bring into active cooperation all who 
were working m this direction, and, finally, to 
gather and disseminate throughout the world 
knowledge of the kindergarten movement 

The oigamzation became a large and influential 
educational body, with branches in every section 
of the United States and in various other parts of 
the world As time went on, growing differences 
in points of theory and practice became apparent; 
and, in order to formulate contempoiary kinder- 
garten thought and more clearly define points of 
agreement and of difference, a committee was ap- 
pointed of leaders who would, so far as possible, 
be representative of the different centeis. From 


the number composing the committee, it was 
called "The Committee of Nineteen " 

Various pieces of work were undertaken by this 
body, the most important culminating in the pub- 
lication of three reports included in a book called 
"The Kindergarten," published in 1913 ten 
years after the formation of the committee The 
Committee of Nineteen has continued in existence 
since its first appointment, in 1903, and many 
matters have been referred to it from time to 

At a meeting held m Detroit, in May, 1921, 
the committee passed a resolution to undertake 
the compilation and publication of memoirs of 
those pioneer workers m the kindergarten move- 
ment who are not now living, and to whom, it 
was thought, a debt of gratitude should be ex- 
pressed m some tangible form A number of 
these pioneer workers were members of the orig- 
inal Committee of Nineteen, and among the 
names submitted, by the committee, to the Inter- 
national Kindergarten Union appeared the fol- 
lowing Mrs Sarah B Cooper, who was the 
first president of the International Kindergarten 
Union, Mme Maria Kraus-Boelte, Miss Susan 
E Blow, Mrs Alice H. Putnam, and Miss Caro- 

Intf oduction 

line S Haven, who were members of the original 
Committee of Nineteen 

Many who are now on the committee are able 
to serve as links to bind together the past and the 
present, as they had the opportunity to come into 
close personal touch with many of the earlier 
workers The membership of the committee in- 
cludes twelve ex-presidents of the International 
Kindergarten Union who have been m a position 
to know the work and workers from many points 
of view 

The Committee of Nineteen appointed a sub- 
committee on editing and publication, naming as 
chairman Miss Lucy Wheelock, who has probably 
had a closer and more intimate knowledge of the 
kindergarten movement, from all sides, than any 
one else associated in the work, and who has had 
exceptional opportunities of knowing personally 
many of the leaders in the movement 

The committee, as well as the International 
Kindergarten Union, takes this opportunity to 
thank Miss Wheelock and her sub-committee for 
their untiring efforts in the preparation and final 
completion of their labor of love this volume of 
memoirs that will bring knowledge and inspira- 
tion to present and future workers in the kinder- 


garten movement, and will serve to perpetuate 
the names and honor the memory of those who, in 
loving service, devoted their lives to the Children 
of the World 

On behalf of the Committee of Nineteen 








MANY years ago if we count by heart- 
throbs and new ideas, instead of by days, 
weeks, and months there lived, in a village in 
Thurmgia, Germany, a lonely little boy named 
Fnednch Froebel 

His mother had died before he was a year old, 
his brothers, who were considerably older than he, 
had been sent away to school, and his father, a 
busy clergyman, had little time to spend with the 
small son Fnednch, therefore, had no one with 
whom to talk, no one to help him understand the 
things that were going on about him, and grew 
to be a silent little boy wandering about the 
house, as he was never allowed to go into the 
garden lest he should soil his clothes or by acci- 

4 Pioneers of the Kindergarten tn America 

dent injure some plant He spent many hours 
gazing out at a front window, watching men 
across the way building a church, and he often 
longed to be with them to see what he could do 
with the blocks of wood and the sand and other 
matenals which lay scattered about where the 
men were working How he would like to pile 
the blocks one on top of the othei, making in 
miniature a tower like that of his father's chuich; 
or perhaps inclose a space with them and play it 
was a room in which he could do as he pleased, or 
lay them in long lines and pretend that they were 
cows going to the meadows, or men going to 
work ! And what could a child not do with that 
sand-pile at his command' There weic, also, all 
sorts of nails which could be duven into blocks 
of wood And how he would like to heai the 
builders talking to one another about then woik 1 
But the lonely little boy had to stay at home 

When he was four years old, his father married 
again, and Fnednch rejoiced to think that now he 
would have a mother whom he could love and to 
whom he could tell all his thoughts, and who 
would answer the questions he so longed to have 
answered, and who, perhaps, would let him some- 
times play with other children in the neighbor- 
hood At first the new mother was very kind and 

The Growth of the Kindergarten 

pleasant But Fnednch had not been allowed to 
climb or swing or to run and jump, or to play m 
any way, so he had not learned to use his body 
freely as most children do, theiefore he was 
clumsy, and frequently stumbled, or knocked over 
a basket or a chair, or hurt himself This made 
the new mother nervous, and later when she had 
a baby of her own who needed much of her time, 
Friednch's awkwardness was often severely re- 
buked and a coldness grew up between them, leav- 
ing the boy as lonely as before and even more shy 

When Fnednch was ten years old, his uncle, 
also a cleigyman, came to the parsonage to make 
a visit The kind man's sympathy and keen un- 
derstanding helped him to perceive the unfortu- 
nate circumstances, and he quickly won his broth- 
er's consent to take the unhappy boy home with 
him to become a member of his small household 

His uncle deeply felt the m]urv which had 
come from the child's constrained life, and Fried- 
rich was given perfect liberty to roam where he 
pleased after school hours, provided that he was 
home in time for the family meals 

In his description of the contrast between his 
life in his father's house and in that of his uncle, 
we see a faint hint of the dawn of the great ideal 
that took possession of his soul and in time germi- 

6 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

nated into what he later named the "kinder- 
garten" The study of its growth encourages 
the true teacher as does no other passage in all 

After two happy years under the beneficent in- 
fluence of this uncle, the boy returned to his fa- 
ther's home, where he spent a year of conflict, in- 
cluding discouragement on his part and disap- 
pointment on the part of his father At the age 
of fifteen he was apprenticed to a forester, for 
a two-years course of instruction in forestry His 
master was, evidently, a well-educated man, but 
one who did not understand the art of teaching, 
and he found it more convenient to neglect the 
boy In the many long absences of the forester, 
Fnednch spent much of his time m the study of 
plant life and in reading 

On his return home at the age of seventeen 
Fnednch Froebel had, apparently, learned little 
or nothing concerning forestry Of course his 
father was disappointed as has been many an- 
other father before and since He felt that he 
had done his part, and agreed with the forester 
that the boy was not worth educating He did 
not appreciate the power of self -education and 
concentration which his son had gamed through 
contact with nature and study of books 

77k? Growth of the Ktndergarten 7 

About this time Fnednch's father sent him on 
an errand to his brother, who was a student at 
Jena The youth was delighted with the atmos- 
pheie of the university, and obtained permission 
from his father to enter as a student, but he re- 
mained only a half-year, on account of insufficient 
funds His need of money caused him to under- 
take several different kinds of work, until at last, 
at the age of twenty-seven, he found his real vo- 
cation that of a teacher 

' Gradually, as life brought new and vital ex- 
periences, the idea of the right kind of environ- 
ment and activities for children grew clearer and 
more convincing in Froebel's mind, until the es- 
tablishment of the kindergarten took possession of 
his body, mind, and soul The kindergarten was 
to be the place where the child should uncon- 
sciously learn not only to express himself freely 
and joyfully with suitable play materials, songs, 
and stones, but, with the right kind of out-of-door 
life, to love and care foi plants and animals, and 
through this loving and nurturing learn that the 
laws which govern the well-being of plants and 
animals also govern his body Then, dimly but 
inevitably, would stir within the child a faint 
feeling that somehow he and the world about 
him were akin 

8 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 


Froebel's idea of the kindergarten attracted a 
few far-sighted men and women, among them the 
Baroness von Marenholtz-Bulow, who was espe- 
cially successful in inducing many educators and 
people of prominence to become interested in the 
work The kindergarten offered such a new view 
of education, that it naturally would find its 
most congenial home in a new country Froebel 
predicted that his "Idea" would be transplanted 
to America and would best flourish here His 
prediction has been fulfilled 

The first kindergarten in America was estab- 
lished in 1855, by Mrs Carl Schurz, who for the 
sake of her own children opened a kindergarten 
in Waterloo, Wisconsin 

In 1860, Miss Elizabeth Peabody a sister-m- 
law of Horace Mann, the organizer of public 
schools in America started a kindergarten in 
Boston In a short time, however, she closed 
it and went to Germany for further study 

In 1868, Madame Knege, a pupil of the Bar- 
oness von Marenholtz-Bulow, organized a kinder- 
garten in Boston 

In 1870, Mrs Susan Pollock opened a kinder" 
garten in Washington. 

The Growth of the Kindergarten 9 

In 1872, Maria Boelte opened a kindergarten 
m New York city for the children of some 
wealthy people The following year she married 
Professor John Kiaus, and the two started an 
independent school for kindergarten teachers 

In 1873, Susan Blow opened an experimental 
kindergarten in St Louis, being allowed a room 
in one of the public schools for the experiment 

In 1874, Mrs Alice H Putnam organized a 
private kindergarten in Chicago 

In 1874, Dr W N Hailmann, who had ex- 
perimented with the work in Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, took charge of a school in Milwaukee and 
to it added a kindergarten department 

In 1877, Miss Ruth' Burntt, who had had 
charge of the kindergarten at the Centennial Ex- 
position in Philadelphia, was given the oppor- 
tunity to establish a kindergarten and training 
class in that city 

In 1878, Kate Douglas Wiggin oigamzed a 
kindergarten m San Francisco 

The foregoing were among the most promi- 
nent early kmdergartners in America Training 
classes soon followed in various places Many 
oi them were quite inferior in real merit, but with 
their zeal and self-sacrifice they helped to call 
attention to the better work It is impossible 

10 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

to enumerate all the various influences that have 
helped to make the United States the center of 
the kindergarten work of the world 

Naturally, the first kindergartens were private 
ones, established by well-to-do and intelligent 
parents for their own children The happiness 
of these children and their evident growth soon 
stirred the philanthropic impulse of women of 
wealth, and kindergartens were started in dis- 
tricts of extreme poverty The Women's Chris- 
tian Temperance Union at once caught the idea, 
realizing that through an interest in the young 
children of a family they could gain the coopera- 
tion of the parents and theieby influence the 
latter in their home life and their ideals The 
Young Women's Christian Association soon saw 
that the kindergarten opened an attractive field 
for enthusiastic and earnest members of their 
association Many such societies saw only the 
beneficial effect of keeping the children off the 
streets, clean and happy, and in rooms provided 
with materials which kept them actively occupied 
Manufacturers who employed laige numbers 
of women in their factories, willingly paid 
good salaries to efficient kindergartners who 
would come and take charge of the younger chil- 
dren of these women 

The Growth of the Emdergarten 11 

The trained kmdergartners who had attained 
unto the larger view of the new idea and saw its 
world-wide significance for education, were aglow 
with enthusiasm, and gladly accepted invitations 
to speak on the subject, in churches, private 
schools, women's clubs, in fact, almost any- 
where In a short time day nurseries began to 
seek kmdergartners to take charge of children left 
in their charge The irregularity in attendance 
of these children caused the enthusiastic kinder- 
gartner to visit the homes of the mothers, to 
persuade them to bring their children regularly 
to the day nursery The social-settlement work- 
ers were quick to see the value of the welcome 
which the visiting kmdergartners received in 
needy homes, and in a short time many churches 
and Sunday-schools supported regular kinder- 

Annual reports from various organizations that 
maintained kindergartens gave valuable testi- 
mony concerning the work Books on the subject 
were translated from European sources Soon 
there appeared books by American authors who 
were testing the work under American conditions 
Then came public lectures on the subject, at 
conventions of the National Education Associa- 
tion the largest association of teachers in the 

12 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

world and at meetings of state and city educa- 
tional associations 

Departments of physical culture gladly en- 
dorsed the rhythmic games, marches, and dances 
which were a part of the every-day life of the 
kindergarten They, however, did not see the 
sociological training which playing in groups 
introduced in such child-like dramas as illustrate 
the industrial and commercial life by which 
the children were surrounded The oversight 
doubtless was due to the crystallized form which 
the songs and games in Froebel's book for mothers 
soon acquired, whereas they were intended 
only to illustrate the spontaneous expression of 
the children's interpretation of life Manual- 
training departments advocated the value of 
those activities of the kindergarten which gave 
dexterity to the child's hand, such as the work 
with clay and other materials, water-color paints, 
scissors and paste-pot Teachers of English rec- 
ognized the value of the kindergarten conversa- 
tions and story-telling, and some teachers con- 
tended that these exercises enlarged the child's 
vocabulary and prepared him to enter and enjoy 
the great world of books Science departments 
rejoiced in the effort to introduce children's gar- 

The Growth of the Kindergarten 13 

dens and the care of animal pets as a means of 
awakening an interest in the study of the sciences 
Art departments heartily approved of the col- 
lections of pictures of various activities of child- 
life and its surroundings, and departments of 
music strongly recommended the kindergarten as 
an opportunity for the beginning of the training 
of the child's ear ancl voice, which awakens an 
appreciation of music 

Superintendents and principals of schools be- 
gan to take part in the discussions of the merits 
of the kindergarten Some were able to speak 
from close observation, and urged a closer con- 
nection between the kindergarten and the lower 
grades Many of the kindergartners grew 
thoughtful at the suggestions of changes in meth- 
ods and addition of materials, and so were led to 
examine more thoroughly the fundamental con- 
cent of the new movement in education 

\At a convention of the National Education As- 
sociation held in Toronto, Ontario, in 1891, Dr 
A S Draper, State Superintendent of Schools 
in New York, proposed a resolution which was 
unanimously carried that the kindergarten 
should be recommended as a part of all school 
systems. This was the National Education As- 

14 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

sociation's greatest contribution to the early 
spread of the kindergarten^ 

The National Kindergarten Association also 
helped to spread the knowledge of the kindergar- 
ten, by its syndicated articles 'in hundreds of pa- 
pers It was the first body to petition for the ad- 
dition of a kindergarten department to the Bureau 
of Education, and assisted materially m estab- 
lishing kindergarten laws in various states) 

We have now the almost unerring test of the 
normal or abnormal physical condition of a child 
by the height and weight measurement, which I 
believe belongs more to Itard, Seguin, Dr Wood, 
and Dr Montesson than to Froebel and his fol- 
lowers There are many laws of health that 
were not known in FroebeFs day But later km- 
dergartners have given most ardent and helpful 
assistance in the campaign for better health 
habits among children 

It would be foolish as well as false to contend 
that all the many improved methods which are 
revolutionizing the more advanced American 
schools came from the kindergarten Yet it is 
but fair to Froebel's work to call attention to 
the fact that if his message had been rightly un- 
derstood in the beginning of its pilgrimage 

The Growth of the 'Kindergarten 15 

around the world, it would have greatly aided 
present-day conditions 

The value of open-air life for children was 
strongly emphasized by Fioebel In the early 
days people in general did not realize the fact 
that most of the pictures, songs, and stones in 
Froebel's "Mother Play" book are related to the 
young child's experiences in the out-of-door 
world, and included the infant m his mother's 
arms, long before the term "pre-school age" had 
been coined and had brought forth too many 
books to be listed save by librarians, nor did the 
kmdergartners themselves realize this fact 

Froebel's first book was an appeal to parents 
to take part in the education of their children 
Now we have the National Parent-Teacher 
Association, recognized as the most compelling 
force for better schools His second book, the 
"Mother Play," created the first classes for moth- 
ers in the real study of their children's spiritual 
as well as physical needs These classes de- 
veloped into a consecration of motherhood which 
grew into the call for the national conferences of 
mothers, and later into the National Congress of 

The remaining three books written by Froebel 

16 Pioneers of tfo Kindergarten vn> America 

were his effort to point the way for freer and 
better school life by the introduction of songs, 
stories, plays, and creative use of manual mate- 
rials He desired at the same time to familiarize 
the child with certain readily conceived mathe- 
matical laws that should suggest spiritual analo- 
gies to the growing mind He believed that 
there was a constant progression, from the period 
of early sense-plays in the nursery, through 
childhood and youth, to the time when the mature 
mind should realize that "In all things there lives 
and reigns an eternal law " Froebel was ob- 
scure in his demonstration of this connection be- 
tween the physical and spiritual world His 
effort has been badly misused and tremendously 
ridiculed, but much remains for the future to 

"Let us prove all things and hold fast to that 
which is good " 




born in Billenca, Massachusetts, May 16, 
1804 Hei parents, Nathaniel and Sophia 
Palmer Peabody, were of New England an- 
cestry, which had been noted from Revolutionary 
times for ardent patriotism 

Early in Elizabeth's life the family removed to 
Salem, there, taught chiefly by a devoted tmd 
wise mother, she and her older sisters, Mary and 
Sophia, grew to womanhood Mary became 
well known in the educational world as a teacher, 
later, as the wife of Horace Mann, she did able 
literary work in connection with his school re- 
forms, making many valuable translations, and 
contributing original papers on the kindergarten 
system to leading newspapers and periodicals 
Sophia married Nathaniel Hawthorne, enriching 

1 Written for the Elizabeth Peabody House Association 

20 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

and enlarging the life of that genius by the full- 
ness and wisdom of her love, making conditions 
at home that led him out to the world in his 

A complete story of Elizabeth's life would 
show that her spirit from early years constantly 
strove to express itself in deeds of love and serv- 
ice to man 

In telling of the impression made upon her in 
her childhood by her mother's story of the Pil- 
grim Fathers, she says in one of her lectures 
"There is nothing for which I thank my mother 
and my God more than for this grand impres- 
sion of all-inspiring love for God, and of all- 
conquering duty to posterity, thus made on my 
childish imagination, and its association with the 
idea of personal freedom and independent ac- 
tion " This impression of love and duty was 
wrought into the fiber of her life 

Every noble cause had her ready sympathy, 
her helping hand the slave in America, the Hun- 
garian struggling against oppression in Europe, 
the Indian suffering injustice at the hands of the 
race which had dispossessed him, the young chil- 
dren everywhere who waited to be educated for 
the service and blessing of the world each class 
in turn had a champion in Miss Peabody 

Elizabeth Palmer Pedbody 21 

No capnciousness led her to drop one thing to 
take up something else, her interests were abid- 
ing, and each enthusiasm helped every other, for 
all had a common source "the enthusiasm of 
humanity," the love of God 

When, in 1859, she became interested in such 
fragments of Froebel's writings as she chanced 
to read, her whole being responded to his natural, 
philosophical, and spiritual conception of the pos- 
sibilities of human development 

Filled with desire to apply such knowledge of 
the new theory as she had gamed, in 1860 Miss 
Peabody opened, under the name of "kinder- 
garten," a school for young children This was 
on Pinckney Street, in Boston 

Here, for a few years, she worked joyously, but 
with a growing feeling that her comprehension 
of kindergarten principles and methods was 

Like Froebel himself, who, after his first teach- 
ing in Frankfurt, felt that though he had found 
his lifework, he had not a thorough preparation 
for it, Miss Peabody saw the need of further 
study, and in 1867 went to Europe to visit kin- 
dergartens, and learn from those who had known 
Froebel and worked out his ideas what had been 
lacking in her own experiment 

22 Ptoneera of the Kindergarten m Amertca 

On her return from Germany, with the single- 
ness of purpose and the entire absence of self- 
seeking which marked her character she publicly 
stated that with increased insight she had come 
to regard her so-called kindergarten as a failure, 
it had not been based on Froebel's principle of 
creative self-activity 

During her absence a genuine kindergarten had, 
through Mrs Mann's efforts, been started m Bos- 
ton under the direction of Madame Knege and 
her daughter, who had studied with the Baroness 
Marenholtz-Bulow in Berlin 

Miss Peabody therefore resolved to leave the 
practical work to these able women and devote 
herself to writing and lecturing on the subject, 
and helping to establish kindergartens throughout 
the country, and from this time her life was given 
to such labors 

Those who had the good fortune to listen to 
her lectures before normal classes in Boston and 
elsewhere, will recall the lovely expression of her 
face as she urged the importance of the careful 
spiritual nurture of childhood, and will remember 
the tender tones of her voice as she recited parts 
of Wordsworth's "Ode on Immortality " Until 
kindergartens were well established in many of 
the large cities of our country, Miss Peabody 

Elizabeth Palmer Peabody 23 

worked incessantly with her pen and her voice, 
traveling from place to place, pleading for this 
great educational reform 

Through her influence the first public kinder- 
garten in America was established This was 
opened m 1870 It was carried on with increas- 
ing attendance and growing interest for several 
years, but to meet the Call for kindergartens in 
other parts of the city, a larger expenditure of 
money must be made than the appropriation war- 
ranted, so the one successful public kindergarten 
was given up 

But private benevolence did, in succeeding 
years, what Boston was not then ready to do, and 
the efforts that Miss Peabody had so heroically 
made were not in vain 

In England Miss Peabody had a large share m 
establishing a Froebel Society, and the American 
Froebel Union owed its existence to her 

For four years she earned on the "Kindergarten 
Messenger" as an independent publication, and 
by fiequent newspaper and magazine articles kept 
the public alive to the new educational thought 

She literally gave herself to the cause, for she 
received, if anything, the most meager compensa- 
tion for what she did, if her traveling expenses 
were paid, she was more than satisfied, thinking 

24 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

nothing of her own great personal sacrifices, and 
as she saw the gradual triumph of the better way, 
and others making easier conquests, she rejoiced 
simply and fervently 

If without the Baroness Marenholtz-Bulow, 
Froebel would have lacked a clear interpreter m 
Europe, certainly without Miss Feabody and her 
sister, Mrs Horace Mann, the kindergarten cause 
m America would not have stood where it does 
to-day The efforts of these two American 
women began in Boston, but their influence was 
not merely local, it spread south and west 

We lose sight and thought of the mountain 
rivulets when we look on the broad, deep river 
nearing the sea, but, however untraced, un- 
thought of, the river has its unseen sources, and 
the remote beginnings of influence in such de- 
voted lives as Miss Peabody's make what we 
sometimes too complacently call our success 

All who knew Miss Peabody, as a personal 
friend, felt the wonderful power of her nchly 
stored mind, which had been in companionship 
with the great men and women of all time, in 
living comradeship with many whose names are 
now world names More attractive even than 
her charming power of reminiscence or her ability 
to inspire with lofty thought, was her childlike 

Elizabeth Palmer Peabody 25 

transparency, her great simplicity Among chil- 
dren she was in her kingdom and of her kingdom 

In Miss Peabody's lectures we have an invalua- 
ble book, the garnered fullness of her ripened 
thought and experience Its pages glow with 
the ardor of an earnest faith in the deep truths 
she tried to interpret 

Froebel's principles are more and more recog- 
nized as true and applicable in all education, but 
the purity and integrity of the kindergarten it- 
self depend largely upon the acceptance by every 
kindergartner of such an ideal as Miss Peabody 
holds before us m the words "Kindergartening 
is not a craft, it is a religion, not an avocation, 
but a vocation from on high " 

On account of physical weakness the last years 
of Miss Peabody's life were quiet, and withdrawn 
from wide social intercourse , but her mind, when 
able to express thought, always gave a word of 
good cheer and encouragement to those who were 
seeking to educate and save young children Her 
earthly life ended January 3, 1894 It had been 
long and fruitful in service to her fellows 



WHILE a student in the old Chauncy Hall 
School, one morning I passed through the 
kindergarten room at the time of the morning 
circle The children were singing, "Father we 
thank Thee for the night " It seemed to me as 
I listened that the gates of heaven were opened 
and I had a glimpse of the kingdom where peace 
and love reign The clouds of glory I once 
trailed had long been obscured, but again I knew 
that we all come "from God who is our home " 
I had found my kingdom. 

From that time my one desire was to be fitted 
to take charge of a Child-Garden, and so I sought 
the advice of Miss Elizabeth Peabody She ad- 
vised me to place myself for kindergarten train- 
ing with Mrs Ella Snelling Hatch, who had 
graduated from Madame Knege's first class I 
was entered as a student in a small class of two, 
held in Mrs Hatch's own home Miss Caioline 
T Haven had graduated from this same small 

M%ss Peabody as I knew Her 27 

school, two 01 three years before We two stu- 
dents had the privilege, during the year, of listen- 
ing to Miss Peabody's "Talks to Kindergart- 
ners," given with the same zeal as if we had been 
two hundred And at our commencement she 
gave us our diplomas, signed with her name 

During this year, I saw Miss Peabody occa- 
sionally, also, at the house of a friend, where she 
was a frequent visitor She seemed to me then 
the embodiment of good-will Her face, framed 
by clustering white curls, was benignant She 
was a fluent talker, and her range of subjects was 
wide I recall one luncheon at which the conver- 
sation was really a monologue by her Miss 
Peabody was so interested in telling us of the way 
in which she gathered materials for her "History 
of the American People" that she was oblivious 
of food and of time She consumed all the bread 
on a plate near her, unconscious of the fact that 
she was eating at all The hours wore on, and 
we all sat listening until the maid came to clear 
away, saying it was time to lay the table for 
dinner It is said that at the Concord School of 
Philosophy Miss Peabody would sometimes be- 
come so absorbed in her theme that she would 
continue until one by one her audience had stolen 
away without her notice 

28 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

During my year of study, I had the rare privi- 
lege of accompanying Miss Peabody to New- 
York for a meeting of the Froebel Union She 
was then nearly blind, and Mrs Mann, her sister, 
considered it unsafe for her go about the streets 
alone So I was elected to be her guide and 
guardian We went to New York on the Fall 
River Boat, and were guests of her cousin Judge 
Peabody I occupied the same room with Miss 
Peabody and was charged to see that she wore to 
the meetings a new silk gown, made for this oc- 
casion She was then still wearing, for the most 
part, the gowns and hats bequeathed her by 
Charlotte Cushman Our first morning in New 
York I awoke to find myself alone m the room 
Miss Peabody was gone Where $ I was filled 
with dismay I was derelict to duty Suppose 
she were run over in boarding a street-car ' 

When I joined the family in the breakfast 
room, they were equally puzzled No one knew 
the manner of her going Shortly, however, she 
came in safe and sound She had been afraid 
that the sexton of Dr Reginald Hebei Newton's 
church, where our meetings were to be held, had 
not been instructed to open the building, so she 
had been to Dr Newton's house at this early 
morning hour to make sure. She had reached 

Miss Peabody as I knew Her 29 

the house before any one was up and had to ring 
several times to rouse the maid, but at last Dr 
Newton was seen and the assurance given that all 
was well 

I cannot recall much about the meetings, which 
lasted two or three days Miss Peabody was 
chairman, moderator, and chief speaker The 
audience, as I recollect, did not number more than 
fifteen or twenty Mr and Mrs Kraus were 
there, and Miss Van Wagenen, who was then in 
charge of the kindergarten supported by Dr New- 
ton's church Dr Newton gave his testimony as 
to the value of kindergarten training He said 
that in making his parish visits he could distin- 
guish between homes where the children were in 
the kindergarten and those in which kindergarten 
training played no part The kindergarten child 
took home his bits of work, and the tired mother 
would brighten up the wall or polish the mirror 
to make a space to put the bright sewing-card or 
the painted flower or leaf The window would 
be cleaned that the paper transparency might 
show its pattern The fathers often stayed at 
home in the evening to hear the children's songs 

The kindergarten child, according to Dr New- 
ton, was a true home missionary 

Miss Peabody was unflagging in her enthu- 

SO Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

siasm and zeal, and never tired in her speaking 
I remember a breakfast during that week when 
she discussed with her cousin her views on immor- 
tality I was amazed that any one would discuss 
any subject so early in the morning 

My part of the contract in this trip was never 
fulfilled, for Miss Peabody refused to wear the 
new silk gown unless she were invited out for 
tea or dinner As no invitation was forthcoming, 
we returned to Boston with the gown none the 
worse for wear 

An incident related to me by a friend further 
illustrates Miss Peabody's delightful disregard 
of mundane matters My friend was visiting at 
Jamaica Plain when Miss Peabody called The 
hostess was not ready to receive and asked her 
guest to go down and entertain the callei while 
she herself dressed On entering the drawing- 
room the house guest found Miss Peabody sitting 
"with one shoe off and one shoe on," and one 
stocking off and one stocking on The off stock- 
ing, Miss Peabody was diligently darning She 
was not at all embarassed, but explained that she 
had found a hole in the stocking that morning, 
too late to mend it befoie leaving the house, and 
added that she always carried a sewing-kit, to be 
prepared for such emergencies Miss Peabody 

Miss Pedbody as I knew Her 31 

once told me she had the provident habit of wear- 
ing her night-gown under her street dress when 
she was to be away for the night With her 
tooth-brush m her pocket, she was prepared to 
sleep anywhere, and was not encumbered with 
a bag while meeting her various engagements 

Miss Peabody's mind was so filled with ideas, 
and with plans for carrying out her high aims, 
that she had to ignore many of the ordinary de- 
tails of daily life 

She lived at a time of great literary and philo- 
sophic activity Boston was then the literary 
center of the country the Athens of America 
Of this golden period of literature and thought 
Miss Peabody could truly say, "All of which I 
saw, and a great part of which I was " She be- 
longed to the inner circle of writers and thinkers 
The book-shop which she kept for a brief period 
in West Street was a gathering-place for the au- 
thors of the time, there they met and discussed 
books and the topics of the day At that period 
Margaret Fuller was holding her parlor classes 
for the study of philosophy and current thought 
Her conferences must have been forerunners of 
our present Current Events classes 

There were giants in those days How distin- 
guished a group of authors then made Boston 

32 Pioneers of the Kmdergatten m America 

famous may be seen by a program given by Mrs 
Aldrich m her "Crowding Memories " The en- 
tertainment was an Authors' Reading given in 
1887 for the Longfellow Memorial Fund Pro- 
fessor Charles E Norton presided at the meeting, 
and the program included these names 

1 Mr Samuel Clemens 

2 Mrs Julia Ward Howe 

3 Dr Oliver Wendell Holmes 

4 Mr George William Curtis 

5 Mr Thomas Bailey Aldnch 

6 Mr James Russell Lowell 

7 The Rev Edward Everett Hale 

8 Mr W D Howells 

9 Colonel Higgmson 

Mrs Aldnch says of the entertainment 

Every seat in the Boston Museum was occupied, and 
in every available place the people stood wedged against 
each other, while the crowd, seeking admission, reached 
out into the street 

This description is a very good picture of the Bos- 
ton of those days a Boston made by the great 
men and women who exalted the intellectual life 
above the material 

Many great names, among which we place Miss 
(Peabody's, had illumined Boston a little before 

LU/MLlll I 1 \IMLR 1L \UODY 

Mtss P'eabody as I knew Her 33 

those mentioned by Mrs Aldrich Nathaniel 
Hawthorne had married Miss Peabody's sister 
Sophia Another sister, Mary, was the wife of 
Horace Mann Dr Channmg, Bronson Alcott, 
Benjamin Sanborn, Margaret Fuller, and many 
others were Miss Peabody's intimate friends 
She shared in the Brook Farm experiment, where 
choice spirits gathered to show what plain living 
and high thinking and community of work and 
interest could do to raise the level of human life 
When Miss Peabody discovered the kinder- 
garten and made it her chief concern, her intellec- 
tual and literary interests were subordinated to 
the cause In 1884 I spent a fortnight in Lon- 
don, in the Bayswater house where Miss Peabody 
and members of her family had often stayed I 
had a letter from Miss Peabody to Mrs Travers, 
the hostess, who made the house not only a place 
to stay in London, but a home of the spirit 
There I met Moncure D Conway, then London 
correspondent for a New York paper 
One day we spoke of Miss Peabody 
"Miss Peabody's devotion to the kindergarten," 
he said, "is one of the great literary tragedies 
She could be the greatest woman of letters in 
America She should spend her last years in 
writing her recollections of literary men and 

34 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

women She had a larger circle of friends than 
any other one person, and she should write of 
'The Men and Women I Have Known ' It 
would be a literary history of her time, unsur- 
passed in interest Instead, she is spending her 
energy and time in going about speaking for the 
kindergarten It is a loss to literature " 

I felt very sorry just then that the world had 
lost the book Miss Peabody could write, but glad 
that the cause of childhood had won her services 
I managed to say 

"Is it possible that Miss Peabody, like Mary 
of old, has chosen the better part* 2 Is it not bet- 
ter to make men and women, than to make 
books 9" 

Miss Peabody's belief in the kindergarten as 
a means of helping humanity was so deep and so 
abiding that she was ready to go anywhere to 
speak on this theme When I first knew her, she 
was still going to all parts of the state wherever 
she might find an audience willing to listen She 
proclaimed the gospel of Froebel and had the 
spirit of the true missionary She believed in this 
gospel as a means of regenerating humanity, and 
so all her mind, might, and strength were dedi- 
cated to the cause 

In 1894, at ^ "P 6 a g e f ninety, Miss Pea- 

Miss Peabody as I Jciiew Her 35 

body put off the mortal and put on immortality 
She sleeps in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery, in Con- 
cord Her epitaph reads thus 


A teacher of three generations of chil- 
dren and the founder of the Kindergarten 
in America Every human cause had her 
sympathy and many her active aid 

"Many her active aid" 1 The cause of the 
American Indian had a strong appeal for her 
She became a friend of the Princess Wmnemucca, 
and with her held meetings in parlors and in halls 
to set forth the wrongs of the Indian and to plead 
for justice These meetings must have been the 
veiy last of Miss Peabody's public appearances 

She never wrote the book of literature, but she 
wrote many books on education The best known 
of these is "Lectures to Kmdergartners," pub- 
lished in 1894 This book contains the lectures 
given to training schools, with the addition of "A 
Psychological Observation of a Child," and other 
papers The record of Miss Peabody's conversa- 
tions with a child given to her care to instruct in 

Pioneers of the fandergarten in America 

religion is illuminating and valuable for all moth- 
ers and teachers The mother of the little boy 
had suffered in childhood from wrong religious 
training, and was unwilling to undertake any ef- 
fort at spiritual culture The child had never 
heard the name of God, and it was Miss Pea- 
body's privilege to lead him to a knowledge 
of the Good Friend who has "a sky full of 
goodness " 

Other books of Miss Peabody's listed in the 
Boston Public Library are 

"Education in the Home, Kindergarten, and Primary 
School," with an Introduction by E Adelaide Man- 
ning 1887 

"Moral Culture of Infancy, and Kindergarten 
Guide" 1863 

"First Lessons in Grammar on the Plan of Pestalozzi" 

"Plea for Froebel's Kindergarten based on Cardinal 
Wiseman's Identification of Artist and Arti/an" 

"Letters to Fathers and Mothers urging Establishment 
of Local Kindergarten Unions" 

"First Nursery Reading Book Intended to Teach the 
Alphabet by Means of English Words" 

"First Steps to Study of History" 

"Method of Spiritual Culture" 

Her Preface to A Bronson Alcott's "Record of 
a School," "Conversations with Children on the 

Miss Peabody as I knew Her 37 

Gospels," by A Bronson Alcott, as recorded by 
her, and various other books on history, on art, 
and on the Indian question, indicate the wide 
range of Miss Peabody's interests 

Her name will be honored and cherished as 
that of a woman of great intellectual ability, as 
a woman of large, universal sympathy extend- 
ing to every good cause, but most of all as a 
woman who saw that the seed of the future must 
be planted in the heart of childhood, and who 
founded the kindergarten in America 

The Elizabeth Peabody House in Boston is 
a settlement established to honor the name and 
work of Miss Peabody, and to be a living memo- 
rial to her 

A new generation of kindergarten workers has 
come into the field Methods and materials have 
changed and must continue to change as we grow 
in knowledge, but "the truths on which our lives 
do rest" remain unchanged Miss Peabody de- 
clared these truths as the foundation of all educa- 
tion Her teaching, her inspiration called into 
the service of the kindergarten in her time a noble 
group of women who looked upon their work not 
as a means of livelihood but as a calling from 
on high These pioneers, in their turn, have 
passed on the torch which lighted their way, to us 

38 Ptoneets of the Kindergarten vn, America 

who are to hold high the light which must not 

Lest we forget ' Lest we forget ' 

Miss Peabody's name should be cherished by 
those who work upon the foundations she laid 




IN 1880 I was sent by the Ontario Government 
to study the organic unity between the kinder- 
gartens and the primary departments in St Louis 
public schools On my return I wrote an article 
about the kindergarten which was published in the 
"Canadian Magazine" and copied in some of the 
magazines of the United States I was surprised 
and delighted to receive from Dr Henry Barnard 
a letter requesting me to permit him to publish 
the article in the next issue of his "American 
Journal of Education " I had never thought of 
Dr Barnard as living, although I had read sev- 
eral of his valuable volumes of educational mat- 
ter We began soon afterward to write to each 
other, and for nearly nine years I was his adopted 

40 Pioneers o-f tlie Kindergarten in America 

I spent one of the most interesting afternoons 
of my life with him, m 1893 (when he was eighty- 
two years old), in the home of Colonel Parker 
in Chicago We lunched with Colonel and Mrs 
Parker The day was extremely hot, and when 
Mrs Parker left us, the Colonel, Dr Barnard, 
and I sat through the memorable afternoon with- 
out coats or vests or collars I knew I was in the 
presence of two great men, who during their lives 
had received clearer revelations of the vital pro- 
cesses by which the soul of a child should be de- 
veloped and guided m its conscious growth toward 
the divine than any other men, with the single ex- 
ception of William T Hams, the foremost phi- 
losopher of his time 

Dr Barnard had written the first national 
school law ever penned, nine years before I was 
born Colonel Parker at the time I had the 
privilege of spending that kindling and revealing 
afternoon with the two men was the chief 
pleader for the free growth of every element of 
power in the child's life I had been studying 
the kindergarten philosophy for ovei twenty years 
and therefore could understand these two As 
Dr Barnard, m unequaled eloquence, lit again the 
lamps of educational progiess which he had been 
the first to light on the heights, during the fifty- 

Henry Barnard 41 

six years since he gave the free-school system to 
the world, Colonel Parker and I listened, and 
grew consciously in power to relate new truth to 
newer truth, as neither of us had ever grown be- 
fore It was an epochal afternoon 

On his way home from the World's Fair in 
Chicago, in 1893, Dr Barnard stayed with me for 
a week, in Toronto We used to go to bed about 
eight o'clock and rise about four in the beautiful 
mornings, and sit under the trees, so that he could 
tell me the story of his wonderful life I visited 
him regularly, at his home m Hartford, until the 
year before he died After I knew him, I never 
was invited to New England to lecture without 
spending at least two days with him, and we al- 
ways retired at eight and rose at four He had 
over two thousand letters from world leaders m 
his time The great statesmen and educational 
leaders in Europe corresponded with him He 
was especially fond of Lord Brougham and 
Wordsworth He had many friends m Pans 
He walked from Pans to Yverdon in Switzer- 
land, to see Pestalozzi's school He knew 
Carlyle, Lockhart, Chalmers, and Coombe 

He chose Lord Brougham as his guide in the 
development of his life aims He was especially 
kindled by the following quotation from Lord 

42 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

Brougham's address to the students of Glasgow 
University when he was Lord Rector of the Uni- 

Let me, therefore, hope that among the illustrious 
youths whom this ancient kingdom, famed alike foi its 
nobility and its learning, has produced to continue her 
fame through the ages, there may be found some one 
willing to give a bright example to other nations yet 
untrodden, by taking the lead of his fellow citizens, not 
in. fnvolous amusements, nor in the degrading pursuits of 
the ambitious vulgar, but in the truly noble task of 
enlightening the masses of his countrymen, and of leav- 
ing his own name no longer encircled as heretofore, with 
barbaric splendor, or attached to courtly gewgaws, but il- 
lustrated by the honor most worthy of our rational na- 
ture, and gratefully pronounced through all ages by mil- 
lions whom his wise beneficence has rescued from ig- 
norance and vice 

He told me that these sentences from Loid 
Brougham's instructive and stimulating address, 
which he read when he was sixteen years of age, 
had more influence on his mind than any other 
thing in revealing to him, an adolescent youth, 
the visions that led him consciously to devote his 
life to higher ideals for the development of 
better conditions for the masses, not only in his 
own country but in all countries, especially by 

Henry Barnard 4*3 

providing improved educational conditions for all 
children No student who listened to Lord 
Brougham's address was inspired by his message 
so truly as was the Hartford boy He im- 
mediately decided to devote his life to service, 
and, in order to be of highest service to his own 
country, he definitely formed the purpose of be- 
coming President of the United States 

Henry Barnard was born in Hartford, Connec- 
ticut, January 24, 1811 He was sent to school 
in the outskirts of his native city His early 
schooling made little impression on him There 
were no normal schools in America at that time, 
and a good many men became teachers because 
they had failed in other occupations Henry 
Barnard's teacher was one of that large class 
When twelve years old the boy had learned little 
from books, but he had played a great deal, 
rambled in the woods alone regularly, and learned 
to love nature 

He did not like school, but he had in his out- 
door life and play developed a strong body and 
an independent mind His ambition to see the 
world was roused by hearing sailors tell attrac- 
tive stones of their experiences, and he concluded 
that he would escape from school and run away 
to sea. His father, seated near a second-story 

44 Pioneers of the Kindergarten vn America 

window one summer night, heard him reveal his 
plan to a neighbor about his own age as the two 
boys sat on the horse-block in the moonlight 
The astonished father said not a word about the 
matter, but next day took a walk with Henry, and 
told him, without letting him know that he had 
overheard the plan for running away, "that he 
thought it was time for him to leave the Common 
School, and that he would be glad to send him 
to an Academy at Monson, Massachusetts, or to a 
Military School, or if he preferred to go to sea 
he would arrange for him to do so " The wise 
father, after hearing the conversation of the night 
before, had seen the father of the other boy at 
once, and the parents agreed to offer the same op- 
portunities to the two boys The other boy, who 
was a little older than young Barnard, had a 
chum who attended Monson Academy So the 
two boys chose the academy, and parents and 
boys were happy For years the boys were not 
told that their moonlight planning had been over- 

Monson Academy was an excellent school 
The teachers were kind and enthusiastic, and the 
boys were ready for intellectual and spiritual 
awakening and new revelations of life The stu- 
dents in the academy came from twenty towns 

Henry Barnard 45 

in Massachusetts They were earnest young 
men who, in Barnard's words, "went to school in- 
stead of being sent" and their example and com- 
panionship proved very beneficial to him The 
romantic surroundings of Monson deepened the 
boy's love of nature, and the meadows, streams, 
and wooded hillsides became vital elements in 
his development Even at eighty-five, when, in 
his garden in the dawn glow of a June morning, 
he told me the story, his awakened spirit shone 
in his eyes as he told how the many natural ele- 
ments of beauty among which he lived became 
elements in his conscious character-growth At 
Monson, too, he became interested in the wider 
range of social and industrial problems, making 
personal visits to the rural homes of some of his 
schoolmates, and investigating the numerous 
factories in the district 

He spent two vital years at Monson, growing 
rapidly physically, intellectually, and spirit- 
ually Seventy years after he left the academy, 
he attended the commencement exercises in June, 
1895, and at the age of eighty-four years 
heard himself described, by a still older man who 
had been a fellow-student, as "the boy who 
played all the time, but beat us all at our 
lessons " 

46 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

When he left Monson Academy, at fourteen 
3^-ears of age, he was so clear and independent a 
thinker that after considering the course provided 
by Yale College, he planned a special additional 
course of his own, and told his father that while 
he was willing to attend Yale (as his father de- 
sired), he wished to take two years to study some 
subjects not in the Yale curriculum, before enter- 
ing college He accordingly studied one year 
with a private tutor, and for a year at Hopkins 
Grammar School in Hartford 

He entered Yale a few months before he was 
sixteen, and graduated with honors before he was 
twenty However, the honors received as the re- 
sult of his examinations did not fully represent 
his real standing, as compared with the other 
students, in the opinion of the professors and his 
fellow-students His clear and independent 
mind matured early, and he was capable of ac- 
quiring and thoroughly digesting and relating all 
the courses he took at college, and also, at the 
same time, taking independent ones of his own 
At college he read widely in Greek and Latin 
literature, in order to get a thorough acquaintance 
with the development of Greek and Latin civiliza- 
tion He read English literature, however, more 
extensively than the literature of Greece and 

Henry Barnard 47 

Rome, and was recognized as the best-read man 
of his class President Noah Porter, twenty-five 
years after Mr Barnard graduated, wrote, ' Few 
professed scholars among us were so thoroughly 
familiar with the ancient and modern English 
Literature, as young Barnard" He graduated 
when he was nineteen years old 

An incident that occurred on the day of his 
graduation clearly proves not only that he had 
greater stores of valuable knowledge in his mind, 
but that he had developed unusual power and 
readiness to express himself cleaily and elo- 

There were two private societies in Yale in 
1830, and it was the custom to have two former 
graduates of the college deliver addresses at the 
commencement exercises, each year One of 
these orators was chosen by each private society 
In 1830 Barnard's society chose John Van Buren, 
a brother of Martin Van Buren (afterward Presi- 
dent of the United States), as its representative 
Barnard's society was named the Linonian Soci- 
ety The rival society, the Brothers in Unity, 
was represented by Dr Leonard Bacon, a very dis- 
tinguished man 

Dr Bacon spoke first While he was speak- 
ing, Mr Van Buren was seized with an attack of 

48 Pwneers of the Kindergarten m America 

illness He was forced to leave the hall, and 
told President Porter it would be impossible for 
him to return When Dr Bacon sat down, Presi- 
dent Porter regretfully announced that Mr Van 
Buren was ill, and unable to return to the plat- 
form, so the Linoman Society would not be re- 
presented on that occasion The Linomans, how- 
ever, promptly shouted, "Barnard 1 " and the 
name was called loudly by the whole audience, 
including the members of the other society 
President Porter called Barnard, and the young 
man was rapturously cheered as he made his way 
to the platform 

It was a severe test for a youth of nineteen 
The vast audience, the rapturous calls, and his 
unpreparedness might have been expected to make 
it impossible for him to deliver an oration that 
would bring credit to his society and to himself 
But he rose superior to conditions His best 
powers responded to the faith of his fellow- 
Lmomans, and his oration was a solid foundation 
for the just pride of Linomans for a generation 

Dr Bacon closed his fine speech by pointing to 
the portraits, hanging in the auditorium, of mem- 
bers of his society and relating in eloquent lan- 
guage the distinguished services each man had 
performed that had earned for him the honor of 

Henry Barnard 49 

having his portrait hung on the walls of his 
college Having finished with his own list of 
super-worthies, he proceeded, in a vein of light 
satire, to refer to certain other portraits he saw 
around him, apparently surprised to see them 
there, and closed by looking for some moments 
with a puzzled expression at the portrait of Mr 
Wykeham, the founder of the Linoman Society, 
which hung directly m front of the platform, on 
the railing of the ladies' gallery Finally he said 
in a questioning voice "Wykeham^ Wyke- 
ham * I fail to remember, for the moment, why 
he should have a place of honor on these walls 
I have heard his name mentioned, however, as the 
founder of some literary society, while a student " 
When the cheering that accompanied Barnard's 
progress to the platform subsided, Mr Barnard 
with perfect faith in himself, with his best ele- 
ments of power aroused but easily under control 
began in a clear, resonant, and winning voice 
that instantly held the attention of every one 
He first, in a most generous spirit, eulogized the 
men of the other society whose praises had been 
sung by Dr Bacon, and in language more trium- 
phantly eloquent than Dr Bacon had been able 
to use, expressed their country's indebtedness to 
them for their great and unselfish services 

50 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

By this course he completely won the hearts of 
his audience, and every sentence was applauded, 
the men of the other society equalling the rest 
of the audience in their enthusiasm Having es- 
tablished so strong a foundation, he, in a deeper 
tone and still more earnest manner, spoke in more 
startlmgly glowing language of the work done by 
Lmomans Kent, Calhoun, Hillhouse whose 
portraits he saw on the walls around him Fi- 
nally he paused and looked steadily at the por- 
trait of Wykeham in front of the ladies' gallery, 
regarding it reverently as he pointed toward it 
for a long time, unable to proceed on account of 
the tremendous cheering of the Linomans joined 
by the entire audience 

"What shall I say of him, whose memory is re- 
vered by all Lmomans <2 " he said, when quiet was 
restored "If it be true, as has been lightly said 
to-day, that his only claim to glory is that he 
founded our society, even Linomans will be satis- 
fied when they know that for that supreme work, 
so full of beneficence to humanity, he has been 
placed 'but a little lower than the angels ' " 

Then he proceeded with his speech, giving his 
fellow-students an address on brotherhood and 
service that amazed the vast audience. Presi- 

Henry Barnard 51 

dent Porter, the greatest of Yale presidents, said 
at the close, "That oration surpasses any oration 
ever delivered in the college during my time " 
Dr Barnard showed me a letter from President 
Porter, written twenty years later, in which he 
said, "No two men who were present that day 
ever meet without speaking of your wonderful 
eloquence " 

Henry Barnard was undoubtedly the finest ora- 
tor in the United States in his time He invited 
me to be the guest of honor at his eighty-fourth 
birthday dinner Two other guests were invited 
Charles Northend, aged eighty- three, whose 
books were used m Ontario schools when I was 
a boy, and Thomas Gushing, eighty-two, one of 
the masters in Chauncy Hall School, Boston, for 
fifty years the best-known preparatory school for 
Harvard University Mr Gushing and I trav- 
eled together from Springfield to Hartford, and 
he told me that he had heard Daniel Webster de- 
liver the three orations admitted to be his finest, 
and that in his opinion Mr Barnard was a greater 
orator, in vision, thought, and expression than Mr 
Webster The Hon J D Philbnck, Superin- 
tendent of the schools of Boston, had made the 
same comparison in speaking of Mr Barnard, 

52 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

twenty-one years before He, too, contended 
that Henry Barnard was the foremost orator in 
the United States, in his time 

Many instances might be given to prove the ex- 
traordinary effect of Barnard's oratory He 
spoke once in Hartford when he was eighteen, 
after a debate on Woman's Suffrage It was the 
custom, after the appointed speakers had 
finished, to allow any one who wished to do so 
to speak Young Barnard was at home during 
a college vacation, and he made an impromptu 
address, in favor of giving women the right to 
vote, that won the unanimous decision of the 
audience That address so impressed the people 
of Hartford that seven years later Mr Barnard 
was elected to the Connecticut legislature, al- 
though, owing to the illness of his father, he 
was not able to attend a single meeting during 
the campaign The legislature deliberately re- 
fused to put him on any committee, and said, 
"Hartford must be taught to send a man and not 
a boy to the legislature " He was elected again, 
however, the next year for they have annual 
elections in Connecticut 

In his second year, when only twenty-six years 
old, he introduced the first bill ever written to 

Henry Barnard 53 

bring education under state direction and control 
A bill had been passed by the lower house the 
year before but defeated in the senate, which 
merely aimed to coordinate the educational work 
of the churches, which at that time, as in Eng- 
land, directed the work of the schools Mr 
Barnard's bill was so radical that many predicted 
its defeat even in the lower house 

The custom in Connecticut is for the members 
of both houses to meet in joint session when a 
bill is introduced, to hear the mover explain its 
fundamental principles Mr Barnard spoke 
fifty-eight minutes in explaining his bill When 
he sat down, the leading senator moved and the 
leader in the lower house seconded a resolution 
suspending the rules of order in both houses, so 
that Mr Barnard's bill might be adopted without 
discussion The bill was adopted by unanimous 
vote It is doubtful if any other legislator ever, 
by his oratorical power, achieved so signal a suc- 
cess, by securing the unanimous adoption of a 
radical bill dealing with so important a subject 
and without any discussion When the Hon 
Mr. Hall of Albany, Attorney-General of New 
York State, read Mr Barnard's bill (which has 
ever since been recognized as the basis of all sys- 

54* Pioneers of the Kmdeigarten m America 

terns of modern education), he wrote to him of- 
fering him a partnership in law, although he had 
never heard of the young man before 

As no one else understood the bill well enough 
to administer it, Mr Barnard consented to be- 
come Secretary of State for Education for a few 
months, without salary He wished to devote his 
life to the practice of law, for which he had stud- 
ied after graduating from Yale, with the ultimate 
aim of entering public life and becoming Presi- 
dent of the United States Gradually, howevei, 
it was made clear to him that in the field of popu- 
lar education he could do his best work for the 
United States and for the world He gave up 
a promising career in law and for the good of the 
common people sacrificed his cherished ambitions, 
and devoted his long life to the work of edu- 

His reputation as an original thinker, as an ora- 
tor, and as an administrator spread over the 
United States He lectured on education in 
every state in the Union except Texas Gov- 
ernor Seward of New York and many others 
urged him to do this He delivered lectures and 
conducted conferences in fifty cities, and ad- 
dressed the legislatures of the first ten states to 
adopt the plan of government control of a sys- 

Henry Barnard 55 

tern of free schools supported by general taxation 
of all the people 

Five years after he had secured a state system 
of free schools in Connecticut, a small group 
in the Rhode Island Assembly secured per- 
mission for him to address the members of the 
legislature, as it seemed to be certain that the bill 
that had been introduced providing for free 
schools in Rhode Island would be defeated 
Roger Williams, the founder of Rhode Island, 
had made that state the most narrowly individual- 
istic one in the Union In debate, before Bar- 
nard came to speak m the legislature, one member 
said he would shoot the "Connecticut Yankee" 
if he came to advocate "his foolish ideas," and 
that it would be just as fair for his neighbor to 
take his horses to plow his own fields as to take 
his money to educate his children Mr Barnard 
spoke, and the power of his oratory secured a 
good majority m favor of the bill, even in Rhode 

When the bill was passed, the Governor of 
Rhode Island sent for Mr Barnard and said 
"Now, as you have got me into trouble, you 
must come and organize and manage the school 
system for me " ct No," said Mr Barnard "I 
intend to devote the next four years to writing a 

56 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m, America 

history of the United States " The governor re- 
plied, "Come and make history, that is better 
than writing it " Mr Barnard accepted the po- 
sition of State Superintendent of Schools in 
Rhode Island, and held it for six years He had 
a difficult position to fill One man in the legis- 
lature said the School Act could not be executed 
"even at the point of the bayonet," and others 
said "Why waste your time and talents ^ You 
might as well beat a bag of wool Our habits 
are fixed You cannot change them " 

However, he bravely undertook his hard task 
He gave more than thirteen hundred addresses in 
little Rhode Island, in the six years he remained 
in charge of the schools He published and dis- 
tributed among teachers and parents more than 
sixteen thousand pamphlets about education, and 
established twenty-nine libraries with more than 
five hundred volumes in each By his ceaseless 
labor he won his fight, and made the Rhode Island 
people lovers of free public schools 

The Hon Thomas B Stockwell, for many 
years Superintendent of Schools in Rhode Island, 
in his Annual Report for 1894 P^^ tnls graceful 
tribute to Dr Barnard 

If ever a man was raised up for a public service, Mr 
Barnard was such a one The cause of popular educa- 

Henry Barnard 57 

fion, though it had many friends, was not popular with 
the people at large The fundamental idea of the re- 
sponsibility of the state for the education of the child 
was foreign to Rhode Island soil, and hence the thought 
of a tax levied on one man's property to help educate 
another man's child was almost treason it was certainly 
robbery The task which lay before the new agent was 
no less a one than to revolutionize the public sentiment 
of the state For this service Mr Barnard was excep- 
tionally well qualified He was a young man in the 
full vigor of an aggressive manhood, possessed of a 
thorough collegiate education, good native powers as a 
speaker, a thorough training in general law, and the 
knowledge and experience gained from the discharge of 
somewhat similar duties in his native state, as well as 
from travel and study abroad During the next year 
and a half this apostle of the new educational gospel 
went up and down this state into every remote corner, 
over every hill, through every valley , until it is not too 
much to say that no man could have been ignorant of 
what was going on unless he deliberately shut himself 
away from the light Schools were visited and teachers 
and pupils inspired to more earnest effort School offi- 
cials were roused to greater activity , the people in public 
assemblies and at their own firesides were taught the 
new and better way 

Henry Barnard made history well In 1849 
he retired in order to rest, but in 1850 three calls 
came to him one to the presidency of the Uni- 
versity of Indiana, another to the chancellorship 

58 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

of the University of Michigan, and the third, 
which he accepted, from his native state, which 
offered him its highest educational position as 
State Superintendent of Education and Principal 
of the Normal School He held this post 
for four years, and then he resigned on the advice 
of his physician He had the satisfaction of 
leaving the school system of Connecticut in a 
well-organized condition His ideals had taken 
deep and permanent root m the hearts of the peo- 
ple throughout the state, and the people as well 
as the teachers mourned because he had to resign 

For two years he devoted himself to literary 
work in connection with his "Journal of Educa- 
tion," till in 1858 he accepted the position of 
chancellor of the University of Wisconsin, and 
that of agent of the normal regents His chief 
purpose in accepting this appointment was to es- 
tablish a state system uniting and relating all 
educational forces, from the kindergarten to the 
university, and making the entire system free 
the highest educational ideal ever originated 
and achieved by any man He established 
graded schools and public high schools, and a sys- 
tem of training teachers in connection with aca- 
demic high schools and colleges, and a normal 
school for more complete training of teachers for 

Hemy Barnard 59 

higher positions in schools and for directors of 
education throughout the state He wrote many 
educational pamphlets and published four vol- 
umes entitled 'Tapers for Teachers" for the guid- 
ance of those who taught 

These activities, m addition to his regular ad- 
ministrative duties and his lecturing throughout 
the state, ultimately, in 1860, produced a condi- 
tion of severe nervous prostration He resigned, 
therefore, and, after waiting for eight months, 
hoping for his recovery, the state reluctantly ac- 
cepted his resignation 

He quietly devoted himself to his literary work 
till 1866, when he was elected president of St 
John's College, Maryland In 1867 he resigned 
to become the first Commissioner of Education 
for the United States It was fitting that the 
man who had written the first free-school law 
given to the world and organized the state and 
city school systems of the United States, who had 
conducted the first County Teachers' Institute on 
lines similar to the present teachers' training 
summer schools, who had first championed the 
cause of woman by demanding, for her, equal 
educational advantages with man, who had 
established the first state system of libraries, who 
was the first to propose a national organization of 

60 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

teachers, and who had published more educational 
literature than any other man in the history of 
the world, should be the first Commissioner of 
Education appointed by the Government of the 
United States 

He remained in Washington till he was sixty 
years of age He organized the National Bu- 
reau of Education and issued four reports of a 
very valuable character, giving much educational 
information and suggesting many educational re- 
forms It is a striking fact, revealing his* re- 
markable vision and the constructive character of 
his mind, that m his first report he advocated 
nearly every educational reform that has since 
been introduced in the United States or in any 
other country 

He devoted the rest of his life to the publica- 
tion of educational literature The thirty-one 
large octavo volumes of his "American Journal 
of Education," and the fifty-two octavo volumes 
of his "Library of Education" form the most com- 
plete encyclopaedia of education ever issued 
Every phase of educational development is 
treated thoroughly in these great works 

The 'Westminister Review" said of the "Jour- 
nal of Education," "England has yet nothing in 
the same field worthy of comparison with it " 

Henry Barnard 61 

The encyclopaedia Bntannica says, "The Jour- 
nal of Education is by far the most valuable work 
in our language on the history of education " 

When Dr William T Harris was Commis- 
sioner of Education for the United States, he 
wrote to R H Quick, the noted English educator, 
stating that it was probable the plates of Dr 
Barnard's great publications would be melted 
Mr Quick replied, "I would as soon hear that 
there was talk of pulling down one of our Eng- 
lish cathedrals and selling the stones for building 
material " 

In addition to the "Journal," and the "Li- 
brary of Education," Dr Barnard edited the 
"Connecticut Common School Journal" for eight 
years and three volumes of the "Journal of 
Rhode Island Institute of Instruction," seven 
volumes of "Papers for Teachers" in Wisconsin, 
and over eight hundred tracts on educational sub- 
jects In doing so he spent over forty thousand 
dollars of his private fortune 

He loved his garden to the end of his life 
One of his educational maxims was "Every 
teacher should be a gardener The purest men 
are the gardeners and flower lovers " 

In addressing the legislature of Connecticut in 
1839, he outlined the difficulties that had to be 

62 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America, 

overcome before education was put upon a proper 
basis, and closed by saying, "For one, I mean to 
enjoy the satisfaction of the labor, let who will 
enter into the harvest " Few men ever labored 
more faithfully and more intelligently than he, 
and few ever lived to see such happy, and hope- 
ful, and wide-spread results from their labor 

The Hon John D Philbnck of Boston, long 
at the head of the school system there, said, "The 
career of Henry Barnard as a promoter of the 
cause of education has no precedent, and is with- 
out a parallel " 

Horace Mann, his greatest co-worker, who al- 
ways consulted Mr Barnard about his new educa- 
tional problems in Massachusetts, said of him, 
"His Rhode Island work is the greatest legacy yet 
left to American educators " 
President Porter of Yale, said 

We will not forget the generous and indomitable spirit 
which prompted him in the outset of his public life to 
plead the cause of education, without fee or hope of re- 
wardj before a cold and unwilling audience in the high- 
est council of the state, which induced him to abandon 
a professional career for which he had made a most dili- 
gent preparation, and in which, steadily pursued, he was 
sure to win distinction and wealth, which enabled him 
to turn a deaf ear to the voice of political ambition and 
to close his heart to the seductions of popular applause 

Henry Barnard 

so easily gained by one possessed of his powers of oratory 
in the discussions of questions of temporary interest, 
which led him to decline positions of the highest literary 
dignity in college and university, that he might give him- 
self up unreservedly to the improvement of Common 
Schools, the long forgotten heritage of the many 

Henry Barnard was the man of clearest, noblest 
vision m his time, the man of revealing power 
most divine, the man of sublimest self-sacrifice 
and of service to the common people of the world 


Dr Barnard, in 1881, published a large volume 
composed of selected and original articles about 
the kindergarten and child-culture, and he was 
one of the kindergarten's most intelligent advo- 
cates in America His interest in the vital rev- 
elations of Froebel continued until the end of 
his life 

In 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, and 1842, and, 
later, from 1849 to 1854, in the "Connecticut 
Common School Journal," he wrote many articles 
directing attention to need for the training of 
mothers and teachers in the proper way of de- 
veloping young children While he was at the 

64 Pioneers of the Kindergarten vn America 

head of the schools of Rhode Island he issued 
several pamphlets on the same subject 

He had learned from Pestalozzi himself many 
principles underlying the child's true develop- 
ment under conditions of freedom and happiness 
He had learned, too, from Pestalozzi, some of 
Froebel's fundamental principles Mr Bar- 
nard's mind was very vitally constructive, and he 
independently related new principles to educa- 
tional principles as they existed, and saw with 
unusual clearness how to transform existing con- 
ditions His revelations and suggestions, from 
1838 to 1854, awakened a new interest in true 
culture of the child in its early life, and helped 
to start other leaders in early child-culture to 
study the problems of their work 

For the first time, in London, England, he saw 
an actual kindergarten in operation at the great 
Exhibition of 1854, where Madame Ronge had a 
kindergarten to illustrate the methods of using the 
materials exhibited by Mr Charles Hoffman of 
Hamburg He was deeply impressed, and on his 
return he issued a pamphlet from his report to 
the Connecticut Government, in which he said: 

The system of infant-culture presented in the Inter- 
national Exhibition of Educational Systems and Material 


Heniy Barnard 65 

by Mr Charles Hoffman, and Madame Ronge was by 
far the most original, attractive and philosophical form 
of infant development the world has yet seen 

He spread the new gospel m New England, by 
delivering many lectures on the kindergarten 

When in 1858 Mr Barnard accepted the posi- 
tion of chancellor of the University of Wisconsin 
and head of the school system of the state, he 
organized the first complete system of graded 
schools ever issued in any state or country, for the 
first time the theoretical basis of a state system of 
education When he was Commissioner of Edu- 
cation for the whole of the United States, Dr 
Barnard in a special report to the Senate in 
Washington in 1869, and to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in 1870, recommended that in the Dis- 
trict of Columbia the first or lowest school in a 
graded system for cities "should cover the play 
period in a child's life," and that "the great 
formative period of the human being's life m all 
that concerns habits of observation and early de- 
velopment, should be subjected to the training 
of the kindergarten" These statements prove 
that he was the first man to decide that the kinder- 
garten should be an organic part of the free state 
school systems of the world His mind first had 

66 Pioneers of tJie Kvndergarten m America 

this great vision, and he interpreted his vision for 

In 1880 he wrote to Miss Peabody that the im- 
pressions made on his mind by the kindergarten 
of Madame Ronge "had been deepened by much 
that I have since read and observed" , and pointed 
out the urgent need of better institutions for the 
training of kindergartners In his letter he said 

My desire is to help place this whole subject of the 
early development and training of the human being, es- 
pecially of the claims and results of the Froebel Kinder- 
garten in this work, clearly and fully before teachers, 
parents, and school officers, and in these efforts I solicit 
your advice and co-operation, and through you, of all who 
are laboring for the same object in the Home, the 
Kindergarten, and the Primary School 

My first plan of publication was to issue these Child- 
Culture papers in separate numbers or parts On fur- 
ther consideration I have concluded to incorporate them 
all with the discussion of other educational topics, and 
then to issue the whole in a volume of contributions to 
the literature of the Kindergarten 

Miss Peabody in her reply said 

Nothing, it seems to me, can do more to establish the 
Kindergarten on a permanent foundation, and place its 
principles and methods fairly before American parents 
and teachers, than the full and exhaustive treatment 
which you propose to give of the whole subject of child 

Henry Barnard 67 

culture, as held by eminent educators at home and abroad, 
giving due prominence to the development in the Kinder- 
garten as devised by Frederic Froebel, and others trained 
in his spirit and methods 

In 1881 he earned out his great plan, and is- 
sued a volume of eight hundred pages, which is 
the most complete encyclopsedia of the develop- 
ment of child-culture through progressive cen- 
turies, and one of the most instructive volumes 
regarding the kindergarten for schools and homes 
even to the present time 

Dr Barnard, from the day he saw Madame 
Ronge's kindergarten in London, in 1854, to the 
end of his life, believed that "the kindergarten 
is by far the most original, attractive, and philo- 
sophical form of early child development the 
world has yet seen " 

He frequently said to me that one of his rea- 
sons for asking to be permitted to call me his son 
was that in mind and heart I was a true disciple 
of Froebel, whom he regarded as the most vital 
of all educational philosophers 

Dr Barnard was one of the few men whom I 
have known whose mentality perceived high and 
still higher visions, and whose organizing power 
could definitely relate his visions to existing con- 
ditions so as to reform the conditions 


HARTFORD has been eminently fortunate 
in the distinguished men and women who 
have lived there It is doubtful if any equal 
area and population on this continent has been 
equally favored, in this regard, with Hartford 
and the surrounding country The only pos- 
sible exception is Cambridge The scholastically 
and ecclesiastically elite of the Massachusetts 
Bay Colony went from Cambridge to Hartford 
and vicinity in 1635, and it has ever maintained 
the aristocracy of ideas which it enjoyed at the 
first At the beginning of the century the most 
regal dwelling on Mam Street was the Barnard 
mansion, in which Henry Barnard was born Jan- 
uary 24, 1811, and where he died, in the same 
room in which he was born, July 5, 1900 

The mansion, the social standing, the wealth of 

1 Reprinted, by permission of the author, and by courtesy of 
Mrs Amalie Hofer Jerome, from the "Kindergarten Magazine" 
of September, 1900 

Henry Barnard the Educator 

the family, as well as the brilliancy of the boy, 
had all conspired to give the impression that 
young Barnard was to be a favorite son of the 
city for whom fame and fortune were waiting 
At fifteen he entered Yale College with bright 
prospects, and at nineteen he graduated with hon- 
ors Young as he was, he was one of the ablest 
men in the literary societies, and was president 
of the leading debating society at Yale He 
took prizes in English and in Latin composition 
Such distinction meant much, for there were many 
able men in Yale with Henry Barnard Horace 
Bushnell, one of the ablest preachers in the 
United Sates, was there, Francis Barnard, after- 
ward president of Columbia College, and Noah 
Porter, later president of Yale Of his fellow- 
students, three became United States Senators, 
nine, members of Congress, one, secretary of 
war, five, ministers to foreign countries, three, 
governors of states, fifteen, judges, six, college 
presidents, and forty-three college professors It 
was proof of great ability for a lad in his teens 
to carry off honors among such talent 

The year that he graduated from college Dan- 
iel Webster delivered the great speech of his life 
the reply to Colonel Hayne in the United 
States Senate This made a profound impres- 

70 Pioneers of tlie Kindergarten m America 

sion upon the young orator of Yale At the same 
time William Lloyd Garrison was at the height 
of his power as an enthusiastic champion of the 
rights of the negro, and the cause appealed 
strongly to Mr Barnard He was resolved upon 
a public career in which oratory was to play a 
leading part In preparation for this he studied 
law after being graduated from college, and was 
duly admitted to the bar Before beginning his 
practice of law he went to Europe, where he 
visited all the principal countries, and became ac- 
quainted with Wordsworth, Carlyle, De Qumcey, 
and other noted writers Thus, with study and 
travel, he secured the best equipment for a suc- 
cessful public career 

On his return from Europe, at scarcely twenty- 
five years of age, Mr Barnard was elected to the 
Connecticut legislature from Hartford This 
was quick recognition for a man who had pre- 
viously done nothing in politics He became at 
once interested in education and proposed a bill 
creating a state board of education The legisla- 
ture of Connecticut was very conservative Few 
people believed that it would accept any school 
bill, especially one so ideal and revolutionary as 
that offered by Mr Barnard Yet, such was his 
influence and magnetism that after his eloquent 

Henry Barnard the Educator 71 

speech the bill passed the House of Representa- 
tives without a dissenting vote, and was adopted 
unanimously by the senate 

The same year that Mr Barnard entered poli- 
tical life, Horace Mann left the Massachusetts 
legislatuie to give himself to the work of educa- 
tion Mr Barnard's admiration for Horace 
Mann vied with his admiration for Webster and 
Garrison, and the choice between an educational 
and a political or legal career was a difficult one 
In the law a way was open to fame and fortune, 
with every opportunity for the exercise of all the 
popular powers he possessed One of the ablest 
lawyers of New York city, the Attorney-General 
for the state, had invited him to become his law 
partner Few young men would decline such an 
offer for the sake of becoming an educator Hor- 
ace Mann was the only man in the country 
who would have said, "Do it " Henry Barnard 
did it 

Mr Barnard became the secretary of the board 
of education of Connecticut, which made him 
virtually the superintendent of schools He es- 
tablished the "Connecticut Common School Jour- 
nal," and wrote annual reports that were second 
only to those of Horace Mann Four years 
later, while he was planning to write a history of 

72 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

American education, the Rhode Island legislature 
invited Mr Barnard to address them upon the 
subject of education, and both branches met in 
joint session to listen to him This speech was 
one of the grandest of his life In consequence 
of it the legislature passed a law much like the 
school law of Connecticut, and Mr Barnard be- 
came the first commissioner for Rhode Island 
He occupied the position for five years He was 
later principal of the State Normal School of 
Connecticut, afterward chancellor of the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, and later president of St 
John's College, Maryland, which position he re- 
signed in 1867 to organize, under appointment of 
the President, the National Bureau of Education, 
of which he was the first commissioner 

Before he was forty years of age he received 
the degree of LL D from Union College, New 
York city, from Yale, and from Harvard No 
other educator was ever so highly honored in 
scholastic circles 

In 1855 Dr Barnard began the publication of 
a series of volumes on education, known as the 
"American Journal of Education," and continued 
it till 1893 These volumes give a vast amount 
of information upon education in the different 
countries of the world information such as can 

Henry Barnard the Educator 73 

be found in no other place No greater series of 
books on education has ever been published 
The "Journal" cost Dr Barnard $50,000 more 
than he received from it, and his fortune was ul- 
timately lost in the enterprise These volumes, 
and his report of the Bureau of Education, prove 
beyond question that he mastered the history 
of education in the nineteenth century m a thor- 
ough, comprehensive, and critical way, as no other 
man has ever done None can ever write about 
American or European educational affairs from 
1820 to 1875 without drawing most of his in- 
formation and inspiration from the writings of 
Henry Barnard He had all the instincts of the 
scientist, the patience of a historian, the poise 
of a statesman, and the zeal of a reformer. 

It was my privilege at one time to be one 
of a dinner party given by the late Thomas 
Cushmg of Boston, who was remembering his 
eightieth birthday in a quiet way Among the 
guests were Henry Barnard and Julia Ward 
Howe It was an occasion never to be forgotten, 
giving as it did a new view of each of those aged 
persons which could be had in no other way In 
the nature of the case, the conversation was 
largely left to the seniors, who had not enjoyed 
six hours together socially for many a day, and 

74< Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

the talk was largely of experiences and events 
prior to the Civil War They spoke in the most 
familiar way of the leaders of thought and action 
m Europe and America, from 1840 to 1860 To 
them Horace Mann, Pestalozzi, Froebel, Words- 
worth, De Qumcey, Carlyle, David P Page, Mary 
Lyon, Longfellow, Holmes, Byrant, Whittier, 
Emerson, Hawthorne, Irving, Webster, Clay and 
Calhoun, were still in their prime They needed 
but an occasional question to bring before us, with 
brilliant touches of wit and incident, scenes and 
personalities that had always been to us a dream, 
and in it all Dr Barnard shone forth as a mighty 
leader among the great leaders of the day. 




MARIA BOELTE was born in Hagenau, 
in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg- 
Schwerin, November 8, 1836 Her father, Dr 
Ernest Boelte, was a lawyer by profession and 
for many years discharged the duties of judge 
and chief magistrate His sister Amely was 
well known as a popular writer It was this 
"Aunt Amely," who, regarding the advancement 
of women as her special mission, influenced Maria 
to study the kindergarten system under Froebel's 

Maria's mother was a daughter of Hofrath 
August Ehlers, a prominent citizen, and her 
family included many professional men With 
these connections Madame Boelte's home was a 
literary and musical center, where were gathered 
people prominent in the intellectual life of the 
day The instruction that Maria received, with 

76 Pioneers of the Kindergarten tn America 

her brothers and sisters, from accomplished and 
learned men, was broad and thorough 

In such an atmosphere she naturally heard 
much of the work of Froebel, which at that time 
was attracting wide-spread attention in the edu- 
cational world Her enthusiasm was further 
stimulated by her Aunt Amely, through whose 
influence Maria, then a young woman of eighteen 
years, was permitted to go to Hamburg, where 
Froebers widow resided It was there, under 
Madame Fnednch Froebel and Doctor Wichard 
Lange, son-in-law of Middendorf, that she at- 
tended two different courses in kindergarten train- 
ing She received, also, special training in 
pedagogics and psychology, at the Seminary for 

When she had finished her course of studies, 
she went to Manchester, England, to Madame 
Ronge's home Madame Ronge, who had been a 
pupil of Froebel in 1849, had been invited by 
some of the prominent families in Manchester to 
lecture on the new education and to organize a 
kindergarten Maria Boelte aided her in this 
work Later she was sent to London to assist in 
the kindergarten and school which Madame 
Ronge maintained there 

Her life in London was an eventful one She 

Maria Eraus-Boelte 77 

was forced to learn English, for, in addition to 
conducting the kindergarten, she taught some of 
the advanced classes, and instructed the young 
women who were taking the training-course It 
was here that she met Charles Dickens and be- 
came well acquainted with him through his fre- 
quent visits to her kindergarten, which was con- 
ducted "without price," the children coming 
"from among the poor " 

When Madame Ronge returned to the Con- 
tinent, Miss Boelte continued her work in the 
family of Chief Justice Lord Denman's daughter, 
who was the sister-in-law of Lord Macaulay 
Here Miss Boelte was required to teach French, 
German, Latin, mathematics, literature, the 
elementary branches, drawing, modeling, music, 
calisthenics, dancing, dress-making, millinery, 
cooking, and kindergarten She had every 
facility for carrying out the kindergarten ideas 
and system with large and small children, for the 
mothers and children of the neighborhood were 
included in her classes In spite of her heavy 
schedule, she found time to perfect her English 

In the London International Exhibition m 
1862 Miss Boelte first exhibited kindergarten 
work executed by her young pupils From this 
time until 1867 she devoted herself almost ex- 

78 Pioneers of ihe Kindergarten in America 

clusively to charitable work, assisting kinder- 
gartners, giving them instruction and advice in 
person and by letter Her one great object was 
the advancement of the kindergarten ideal She 
saw with dismay how little the true kindergarten 
education was understood and realized the dif- 
ficulty arising from the lack of thoroughly trained 
kmdergartners capable of teaching others She, 
therefore, gave the greater part of her time, with- 
out compensation, to the training of teachers 

In 1867, Miss Boelte left England and went to 
Hamburg as the guest of Madame Johanna 
Goldschmidt, mother-in-law of Jenny Lind 
Madame Goldschmidt was president of the Froe- 
bel Union, and she desired Miss Boelte to iden- 
tify herself permanently with the work there 
Miss Boelte, however, had promised Frau Froebel 
to become a co-worker and partner with her in 
conducting a training class for kindergartners A 
severe illness frustrated these plans and inter- 
rupted Miss Boelte's work for some time 

Upon her recovery, while visiting Lubeck, she 
was induced to open her first private kindergarten 
The idea being as yet little understood, she had 
to overcome strong opposition Within a few 
months she had successfully established a school 
where she conducted the kindergarten with con- 

Maria Kraus-Boelte 79 

necting classes and two training classes, one for 
kmdergartners and the other for young girls pre- 
paring for the nursery When Madame Froebel 
visited this school, she exclaimed, with tears m 
her eyes "Oh, that Froebel had known you 1 
Could he but have seen your work ' You are, in 
truth, his spiritual daughter " 

During the Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), 
Miss Boelte's kindergarten children had a display 
and sale of work done in the kindergarten by 
fifty-six children from three to seven years of age 
The proceeds, one hundred dollars, were given for 
the benefit of both French and German wounded 
Miss Boelte closed her Lubeck school in 1871 and 
returned to England, where she met Miss Henri- 
etta B Haines, who had a private school in New 
York, and who, wishing to add a true kinder- 
garten, had gone to London to persuade her to 
come to America Miss Boelte accepted the in- 
vitation and in September, 1872, established a 
kindergarten and mothers' class in Miss Hames's 
school It was during Miss Boelte's first year in 
America that Miss Susan Blow sought her and by 
persistent application became the first kinder- 
garten teacher in America trained by Miss Boelte 

In the following year, 1873, Maria Boelte 
married Professor John Kraus His articles on 

80 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

"Froebel's Method of Education in America" had 
brought about a correspondence between the two 
disciples of Froebel and awakened a mutual in- 
terest In October, 1873, ^ New York Semi- 
nary for Kindergartners, with a model kinder- 
garten, connecting classes, and lower primary, 
was founded under their joint direction Dr 
Henry Barnard, in his "Kindergarten Child Cul- 
ture," says of their work 

In the development of this veritable Froebehan Insti- 
tute, Professor Kraus and Madame Kraus-Boelte worked 
in full accord against difficulties and hindrances which 
would have appalled spirits less determined, and against 
the strongest temptations to lower the qualifications in 
natural endowments and special knowledge for all candi- 
dates for their diplomas 

In 1872, at a meeting of the National Educa- 
tion Association in Boston, the kindergarten 
received its first recognition in America, when 
Madame Kraus-Boelte gave the first complete ex- 
planation of Froebel's theory and method At 
the Centennial Convention of the National Edu- 
cation Association held in Baltimore in 1876, 
she lectured and exhibited kindergarten work 
done by the children, and prepared a special 
exhibit of work done under the auspices of the 


Mana Kraus-Boelte 81 

Bureau of Education in Washington This 
special exhibit was sent to the Centennial Exhi- 
bition in Philadelphia later in the same year As 
an outgrowth of the united efforts of Professor 
and Madame Kraus, the "Kraus Kindergarten 
Guide" was published in 1878 

The model classes for children were discon- 
tinued in 1890, in order that Madame Kraus- 
Boelte might give her entire time to the training 
of young women for the profession of kinder- 
garten teaching Six years later, Professor Kraus 
died, and Madame Kraus-Boelte continued the 
work alone In 1911 she celebrated the fiftieth 
anniversary of her entrance into kindergarten 
work, thirty-nine years of the long period of serv- 
ice having been dedicated to America's childhood 
On this notable occasion she was the honored 
guest of the Kraus Alumni Association, and edu- 
cators from far and near paid tribute to her 
Two years later, in 1913, she retired from active 
work to secure leisure for writing certain lectures 
desired by her graduates, and for recording her ex- 
periences 111 health prevented the completion 
of this latter work, and her death in 1918 left her 
memoirs unfinished and unpublished 

She was a most inspiring and gifted teacher 
Over twelve hundred young women and two 

82 Pioneers of the Eindergaiten in America 

thousand children in America came under her 
influence She frequently lectured before the 
following societies The National Education 
Association (of the Kindergarten Department 
of which she was president in 1899-1900), 
the International Kindergarten Union, the New 
York Free Kindergarten Association, the Brook- 
lyn Free Kindergarten Association, the Kraus 
Alumnse Association She was president and 
honorary member of the Kindergarten Union of 

Madame Kraus-Boelte deservedly stood in the 
first rank of kindergartners, not only in America 
but also in England and Germany She enjoyed 
unusual opportunities, having had, besides wide 
experience, an acquaintance with the most promi- 
nent educators and literary leaders of Europe 
By nature she possessed a rare fitness for her 
chosen work She was reared under conditions 
of which Dr Henry Barnard said, "Had Froebel 
himself planned them, they could scarcely 
have been more favorable for superior culture and 
preparation for life work " 

The patrician character of her early surround- 
ings registered itself in her cultured graciousness, 
which charmed by its sweet simplicity and im- 
pelled by its underlying strength of character 

Mama, Kraus-Boelte 83 

Her garden for children was carefully planted ; 
the soil was rich, the plants have flourished, and 
the fragrance of the blossoms has long since 
penetrated through all of America's educational 
system The consecration and devotion of her 
life to the future of childhood is a glorious monu- 
ment, more glorified by the inspiration it gives to 
those who follow in her path, striving to achieve 
and carry forward the purpose of her high ideals 



T7 ORTUNATELY for her students, there has 
F been left in manuscript the story of Ma- 
dame Kraus's life, from her childhood, up through 
the years of her maturity It is written in her 
strong, terse style, and reveals the true purpose of 
her years of work When it is published, as we 
hope it may be, by the Kraus Association, we 
shall feel that she is with us again 

In this short paper I can only write in loving 
remembrance of the years when she was with us, 
and of events which were tnval in themselves, 
yet revealed the inspiring, vivid teacher and 

A group of young women had gone to Madame 
Kraus just forty years ago each eager to learn 
of childhood, the meaning of childish play; 
how to direct the activity of busy little hands, 
how to unfold child nature and to supply food for 
childish thought Each looked to this vital 

A Remembrance of Maria Kraw-Boelte 85 

woman (then in her prime) to meet these needs, 
to expand the womanly nature of the seeker, to 
awaken within her an understanding of the needs 
of child life, and none was disappointed, the 
heart was satisfied In this group was one pen- 
sive young mother from far-away California, a 
mother and daughter from Missouri ., two women 
from Chicago , one from Buffalo , a number from 
nearer New York, and a few who were preparing 
to teach the blind 

In the beginning, questions arose ft What 
books shall we study^" "What methods shall 
we follow 9 " The only reply from our magnetic 
leader was "I am the book study me day by day 
and the children " The children responded to 
her as flowers do to the sunshine, expanding in the 
warmth of her love and interest in their welfare 
A phrase we often heard repeated was, "Children 
prosper when they are happy " As she passed 
from room to room in the studio building where 
her classes were held at that time, she was a con- 
stant inspiration, stimulating the students to 
earnest endeavor and careful observation, and 
bringing joy and freshness and life to each child 
as she passed by I recall one morning A 
group of children had been making paper boats 
which they were about to launch on a miniature 

86 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

lake in the sand-box, when Madame Kraus came 
quickly up behind them with a watering-can and 
let it rain, to the immense delight of the little 
group and of the students who were watching 
her She often said, when her surprises came, 
"They are from heaven " 

The spirit of fun and frolic was often in the 
air, but that did not obscure the serious business 
of awakening life for students or children One 
young woman expressed it when she said, "I went 
into the training class a thoughtless girl and came 
out a woman " Madame Kraus created an ideal 
of motherlmess in those who were preparing to 
teach little children, and often spoke of mothers 
and kindergartners as educators She early called 
the mothers of her children around her for con- 
sultation and mutual helpfulness The child, 
the mother, and the kindergartner worked and 
played together, laying the foundation for hap- 
piness and growth 

Coming into the kindergarten one morning 
from the advanced classes, Madame Kraus 
noticed a little brown-eyed boy who looked sad 
His dear mother had been called away and would 
never minister to her little son again It was the 
story hour and Madame Kraus saw the opportu- 
nity to awaken hope, to rekindle the loving little 

A Remembrance of Maria Kraus-Boelte 87 

heart with confidence The mother's love was 
still brooding over her child she was not far 
away As the story progressed the brown eyes 
brightened, the sad expression vanished, the child 
heart was comforted 

As the years went on and her kindergarten was 
closed, Madame Kraus became fairy godmother 
to many children, especially the children of her 
students From the depths of her silken bag, 
which was an essential part of her apparel, would 
emerge just the needful object at the psychologi- 
cal moment A little girl ran to meet her as she 
was walking over the downs at Martha's Vine- 
yard ; immediately a bright yellow ball appeared 
and the child, ball in hand, danced with delight, 
and held it to the golden asters blooming every- 
where about her These vivid little pictures we 
love to recall as we" think of our kindergarten 
mother our friend 

At a recent meeting of scientists in honor of 
fifty years of Agassiz's work and influence, we 
heard his motto repeated again and again 
"Study nature not books " Even so Madame 
Kraus urged her students to study children, seek- 
ing the laws of their development through obser- 
vation She urged young mothers to watch the 
daily growth of each little life from the begin- 

88 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

ning, and to record the progress from month to 
month, watching carefully each manifestation of 
awakening, guarding the child that it might grow 
naturally, and guiding, that the little feet should 
keep in the right way Her method was so true 
to nature that the child absorbed the things need- 
ful to his life as he absorbed the fresh air, sun- 
shine, and pure water necessary to his physical 

In her work the family was ever reverenced as 
the unit of social life, by finger-play, song, and 
story, with the children, and in her talks with her 
students she held firmly to the necessity of the 
father's doing his part in the early training of 
his children 

Madame Kraus, in her attitude toward edu- 
cators, was kindly and appreciative, unless she 
felt that Froebel's principles were being exploited 
There must be no haste in the development of the 
child a slow, sure development must be main- 
tained through all the stages of growth She was 
ever keenly alive to the progress of events in the 
educational world, and counted among her friends 
many who were active in educational circles Es- 
pecially was she interested in Adelphi College, 
where one of her kindergarten daughters was 
working out the problem of the child, from its 

A Remembrance of Maria Kraus-Boelte 89 

early years in education to the completion of the 
college course, including the training for child- 
hood development 

When strangers sought an interview with 
Madame Kraus, it was necessary to observe cer- 
tain formalities which to some ardent people 
seemed not quite in keeping with our American 
freedom, but which accorded with her early Euro- 
pean training These little formalities observed, 
one could not find a more cordial hostess or re- 
ceive more courteous attention Those of us who 
knew her intimately loved the glimpses into her 
past life which on occasion we were allowed to 
enjoy, her happy childhood, when work, play, 
and cooperation constituted the spirit of the cir- 
cle; an interesting reference to a little French 
blood in her veins, which made her so lively, an 
aunt who traveled and wrote and entertained 
many literary friends (among them Carlyle and 
Dickens) the aunt through whom she became 
interested in Froebel's philosophy Her father 
was a court lawyer who had planned for his 
daughter a domestic life with some social activ- 
ities, promising to give a ball in her honor if she 
would give up the thought of educational work 
She told us, also, of her life in England, when she 
shared her knowledge with a group of families 

90 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

who were cooperating in securing for their chil- 
dren the benefits of a newer method in education 
All these references to the past with little 
mementoes in the form of miniatures painted 
on ivory were rare treats to those who loved 
Madame Kraus Among her strongest character- 
istics were her devotion to her loved ones and 
her desire to have others share in her apprecia- 
tion That her students did honor her life and 
work was shown in that last beautiful service 
held in Columbia Chapel, when expression was 
given to the thought that her work may still go 
on, that in the life beyond she may still be sur- 
rounded by the children she loved, and that those 
who had the benefit of her understanding heart 
may bear the torch forward to coming genera- 



ONE of the early events which influenced the 
establishment of the kindergarten in Bos- 
ton was the coming of Madame Knege and her 
daughter Alma, from Germany, in response to 
the earnest invitation of a small group who had 
become interested in the "new education " Both 
Madame Knege and her daughter had studied 
with the Baroness von Marenholtz-Bulow in Ber- 
lin In 1868, they arrived in New York, spend- 
ing a few months there They were not success- 
ful, however, in their attempt to establish them- 
selves and their work, and so came to Boston, 
where, due to the influence and labors of Eliza- 
beth P Peabody, there was considerable intelli- 
gent interest m the kindergarten system 

Miss Peabody was in Europe at this time, 

1 Compiled from material found in the "Kindergarten Maga- 
zine" of September, 1890 Used by permission of Mrs Amalie 
Hofer Jerome 


92 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

studying kindergarten methods, leaving the kin- 
dergarten and school for young children, which 
she had established in Boston, in the hands of her 
associate, Miss Corliss 

In September, 1868, the following announce- 
ment appeared in the "Boston Transcript" 

German Kindergarten Miss Corliss relinquishes her 
school, hitherto kept on Pmckney street, into the hands 
of Madame Kriege and Miss Alma Knege, who have 
been trained at the Kindergarten Seminary of the Baron- 
ess Marenholtz, in Berlin. This lady was a personal 
pupil of Froebel, the founder of the Kindergarten Ma- 
dame Knege has brought with her from Germany the 
material and apparatus for the kindergarten proper, as 
taught in German cities In connection with the school, 
she proposes to take afternoon and evening classes for 
the training of kindergarten teachers 

Among names given as references were those of 
Dr Henry Barnard, Commissioner of Education, 
Mrs Horace Mann, and her sister Miss Elizabeth 
P Peabody 

A few quotations from private letters and arti- 
clesVntten by Madame Knege, indicate some of 
the difficulties which she encountered in her work : 

We had to hire a whole house at high rent on Charles 
street, and as soon as we moved into it my daughter was 

Matilda H Knege 98 

taken ill with fever, and was at the point of death for 
some time I, however, had to go on as if nothing was 
amiss, issue circulars, advertise, receive visitors , it was 
a dreadful time. 

When I look back on those early days of struggle and 
hardship, I feel that only my very strong desire to be- 
stow the blessing of Froebel's ideas on our adopted coun- 
try, and to leave it in the hands of Americans to con- 
tinue to improve, could excuse me for undertaking so 
heavy a task, but I strictly adhered to the principle that 
one must thoroughly understand, before he can improve a 

It seems to me that no person ought to adopt or modify 
so perfect a plan as Froebel's who has not first pro- 
foundly studied it, to discard the vital principles, the 
scientific basis and the progressive gradations of the 
method, as such blunderers would be apt to do, would 
be fatal in the extreme 

The word "German," prefixed by me to Froebel's 
kindergarten, has led to the misapprehension that it was 
meant to indicate a contest or rivalry among nationalities 
My motive in calling the kindergarten, which we estab- 
lished last year in Boston, "German Kindergarten," was 
simply that I felt the necessity of making a distinction 
between the true system of Froebel and schools for little 
children in this city, which take the name of kindergarten 
without embodying a single cardinal principle laid down 
by Froebel, their onginator I might have called it 
"Froebel Kindergarten," but that did not seem to answer 
the purpose, as we found that very few persons knew any- 
thing about Froebel, and still we were anxious to do some- 

Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

thing for the introduction of his system Only schools 
conducted in accordance with Ffoebel ought to assume the 
name of kindergarten, whether they exist in France, Eng- 
land, Itaty, or America The education Froebel pro- 
poses is a science and art to be acquired , this, added to a 
perfect love for children, alone qualifies one to be a 
kindergarten teacher 

It is not true that Froebel's system is adapted specially 
to the habits and manner of life in Germany It em- 
bodies principles as universal as the human mind not 
the English, not the German alone and Froebel would 
rejoice to see his ideas earned out in all parts of the 
world That the language of those nations wheie his 
ideas are introduced must be substituted for the German 
is self-evident, but we cannot call this a "radical depar- 
ture from Froebel," nor any departure To intimate 
that anyone of intelligence would wish to adhere slav- 
ishly to the letter of Froebel, and not grasp his spirit, is 
to do an injustice 

Without doubt, if Madame Knege had omitted 
the word "German," simply calling her venture 
"Kindergarten," she would have met with greater 
favor from the public, and would have been more 
successful financially, but her object in coming to 
America was not to make money, nor for personal 
gam in any way Her one, consuming desire was 
to introduce Froebel's system in a manner that the 
great founder himself would approve 

Matilda H Knege 95 

One of Madame Knege's own pupils, Miss 
Mary J Garland, once wrote 

But for the singleness of purpose with which Madame 
Knege devoted herself to establishing it on a sound hasis , 
but for her strict adherence to fundamental principles 
though concession would have been easier, and pecuniarily 
more profitable , but for her fidelity to a high ideal, the 
history of the Kindergarten in this country might have 
have been very different less healthy in its growth, less 
steady m its progress, for in the beginning we have sure 
prophecy of the end 

Through the efforts of Mrs Mann, Miss Pea- 
body, and Madame Knege, one public kinder- 
garten was opened in Boston This was sup- 
ported by public funds for about seven years, and 
then it was decided that no more money could be 
used for "this new-fangled way" of teaching chil- 
dren But the kindergarten was destined to be 
saved s Mrs Pauline Agassiz Shaw of Boston car- 
ried on the work, establishing from time to time 
new kindergartens, and generously supporting 
them until the City of Boston was ready to take 
them over as a part of the public-school system 

The time given to the training of students in 
those days was indeed short only six months' 
Madame Knege, herself, felt that the course was 

96 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

too abbreviated, for many of her pupils were im- 
mature and lacked that cultural equipment nec- 
essary for a teacher of little children An en- 
trance examination was required, to be sure, and 
students were received on probation for one 
month The lectures given by Madame Kriege 
were largely from the manuscript of "The Child, 
Its Nature and Relations," and was a free render- 
ing of the German of the Baroness von Maren- 
holtz-Bulow's "Child and Child Nature" 
These lectures were published in book form in 
1872, and the original was translated and pub- 
lished in 1880 

In 1872, Madame Kriege and her daughter re- 
turned to Germany, and their work was continued 
most successfully by Miss Mary J Garland, who 
was the only graduate to whom a certificate of 
qualification had been given as a training teacher 

For some years Madame Kriege often sent let- 
ters and helpful educational articles to the "Kin- 
dergarten Messenger," a small monthly magazine 
published by Miss Peabody; and these were in- 
deed appreciated at that time, when so little was 
available on the subject of the kindergarten 

Later, Madame Kriege and her daughter re- 
turned to America to conduct a training school 
and bndergarten in connection with Miss 

Matilda, H Knege 97 

Haines's private school in New York City, declin- 
ing another alluring opportunity to go to German- 
town, Pennsylvania 

The last years of Madame Knege's life were 
spent in Germany She never ceased to feel a 
deep interest in all that pertained to the wel- 
fare of the kindergarten in both Germany and 

She died on March 31, 1899, at the age of 
seventy-nine Her long life was one of rare 
beauty and power, and to her faithful, coura- 
geous efforts, we of to-day owe a loyal debt of 



WITH the passing of a great personality, a 
great spiritual leader, there remains to 
the world a rare heritage, a vital benefaction 
Exceptional natures filled with the spirit of 
brotherhood helpful, courageous, sincere, with- 
out prejudice, and above selfish ambition reveal 
by their lives to what humanity may attain 
Such a one was Pauline Agassiz Shaw 

Pauline Agassiz was born in Neuchatel, Swit- 
zerland, February 6, 1841, the youngest child of 
Louis Agassiz and of his first wife, Cecile Braun 
Delicate, loving, beautiful, with a mind of un- 
usual insight, Pauline was the idol of her par- 
ents and of her brother and sister 

After the death of their mother in 1848, the 
three children lived with relatives in Switzerland 
till 1850, when they joined their father in Cam- 

iThis sketch and the two following are used by courtesy of 
The Women's Municipal League of Boston, and are found 
in the volume of addresses and tributes given at the Memorial 
Service for Mrs Sha-w, April 8, 1917 

Pauline Agassiz Shaw 99 

bridge, Massachusetts, where their education was 
completed On November 30, 1860, Pauline 
married Quincy Adams Shaw 

Out of the effort to discover the best methods 
of training her own five children and the children 
of some of her friends, grew Mrs Shaw's practical 
interest in education Her school, established at 
6 Marlborough Street, Boston, made a significant 
contribution to the science of education It was 
a pioneer in demonstrating many of the progres- 
sive principles of modern pedagogy From this 
interest in children and m education in general, 
developed her devotion to the various causes and 
philanthropies which filled her life with joyous 

She had never been so well, nor more actively 
absorbed m all the vital forces of modern life, 
than in the last two years of her life While her 
personal correspondence, committee work, and 
other manifold duties filled many happy hours of 
each day, she found her deepest joy in the com- 
panionship of her children and her grandchildren 
It was in the midst of such activity and happiness 
that the summons came swift, unforeseen, in- 
exorable After an illness of little more than a 
week, she died of pneumonia on February 10, 


WE have come here to celebrate the achieve- 
ments of Pauline Agassiz Shaw, to rejoice 
in the good work she did for this community and 
for the universal improvement of education and 
philanthropy Her life had in it many trials 
and sorrows, but also many heart-felt joys and 
solid satisfactions 

I first knew Pauline Agassiz as a beautiful and 
graceful girl, a very serviceable daughter in a 
house which had few servants but abounded in 
hospitalities I shall never lose the impression of 
her grace and beauty when, at an evening party at 
her father's house, she brought me a cup of coffee 
across the room I remember with the utmost 
distinctness her delightful aspect when she was a 
pupil in the unique school for girls which was 
conducted for a few years in her father's Cam- 
bridge house 

She was married at nineteen, and then suddenly 
transferred from a house where means were nar- 

A Tnbute 101 

row to a house where means were ample, a house 
full, too, of beautiful objects of art There her 
children were born and brought up During all 
her married life she had at her command a large 
income which she used at her discretion, not for 
any purpose of private luxury but altogether for 
purposes of public usefulness and beneficence 

Educational work from the first enlisted Mrs 
Shaw's interest and support I suppose no pri- 
vate person in this country has ever done so much 
for kindergartens as Mrs Shaw did She gave 
the public demonstrations of the usefulness of 
kindergartens, and did pioneering work in intro- 
ducing them into Boston and neighboring cities 
After many years of patient work and much ex- 
penditure, she had the satisfaction of seeing kin- 
dergartens adopted in Boston and some other cities 
as an accepted, and indeed indispensable part 
of a good public school system 

She was interested in developing in public and 
private schools the kind of teaching which she had 
seen her father give Professor Agassiz was de- 
scended from a stock of ministers and teachers in 
Switzerland, and was himself an eminent natural- 
ist and fascinating lecturer Her mother was the 
daughter of a family famous in Germany for both 
its scientific and its artistic qualities and achieve- 

102 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

ments Mrs Shaw had both these inheritances 
in her blood She was always interested in con- 
crete teaching, in training the senses, in impart- 
ing the knowledge and the mental training which 
come in through the eye, the ear, and the hand, 
and in cultivating through such training the scien- 
tific method of thought Much of her public 
work for education exhibited this tendency to 
bring into education, for all sorts of children and 
adolescents, a larger proportion of concrete teach- 
ing and of practice in observation, and in the in- 
ductive mode of reasoning 

Mrs Shaw had the most ardent faith in the 
practicability of improving greatly education, 
and social and political organization, and hence 
in improving the common lot of humanity and so 
making mankind happier 



MOST people speak of Mrs Shaw as a great- 
hearted philanthropist , kmdergartners like 
to remember her as a great pioneer in education 
For education was her passion, and the kinder- 
garten, as she said only recently, was her first love 
the one from which all her other loves sprang 
No other individual supported the kindergarten 
so liberally or rendered greater public service by 
means of it To realize in some degree the sig- 
nificance of her work we need to recall its history 
As early as 1867 Miss Peabody began her 
efforts in the interest of the kindergarten and was 
succeeded by others, notably Miss Garland and 
Miss Weston in connection with their private 
school It was not, however, until 1877 that the 
kindergartens in Boston really came to stay 
In that year Mrs Shaw opened two kindergartens, 
one in Jamaica Plain and one in Brooklme 
Gradually others were established in Boston and 

104s Ptoneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Cambridge until in 1883 Mrs Shaw supported 
thirt}-one free kindergartens Many of these 
were located in public school buildings, but all the 
expense of salaries and maintenance was borne by 
Mrs Shaw 

Under the able direction of Miss Laliah Pm- 
gree, without whom even Mrs Shaw could not 
have accomplished her results, the kindergartens 
became a power in the educational system of 
Boston. In 1888, at the invitation of Mrs 
Shaw, the School Committee made an investiga- 
tion into the value of the kindergarten, with the 
result that the fourteen kindergartens in Boston 
supported by her were taken over by the city 

It was a glad day when the city adopted the 
kindergartens, but it was a sad day when they 
passed out of Mrs Shaw's keeping I wish I 
might give you some idea of what her personal 
touch meant to everybody ' Who can ever for- 
get those wonderful days when the boxes of 
flowers arrived, sent by Mrs Shaw to make the 
kindergartens beautiful $ Or when "the fairy 
godmother" herself appeared with her wistful 
gayety and made all hearts glad* 2 Which one of 
us fails to remember her modesty and humility 
as she sat and listened to young upstarts in educa- 
tion who thought they carried the salvation of the 

Mrs. Shaw's Service to the Kindergarten 105 

world on their shoulders ^ Her presence turned 
everything into poetry and every kindergarten 
into fairyland 

One great significance of Mrs Shaw's work was 
the fact that she zmtiated the kindergarten move- 
ment zn the East Isolated attempts to establish 
public, private, and charitable kindergartens had 
been made in various places, but with Mrs 
Shaw's organized system of model kindergarten 
work under expert supervision and direction the 
kindergarten became a part of a great educational 
movement, and from her success Philadelphia, 
New York and other cities took heart and the kin- 
dergarten was planted in the East for good 

I wonder how many of you know how far- 
reaching the influence of her kindergarten was 
Do you realize that Mrs Shaw's kindergartens 
were the first social and educational centers con- 
nected with the schools, and that her kuidergart- 
ners were the first social workers and visitors who 
went from the school into the home^ Are you 
aware that Mothers' Meetings and Parents' Clubs 
originated in these kindergartens and that Mrs 
Shaw provided instruction in many subjects, be- 
sides the care and education of children, to grown 
people 2 

Her kindergartens were the first Community 

106 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Centers where little children were helped to 
realize their relation to the larger world sur- 
rounding home and school By the kindergart- 
ners they were taken on excursions to field and 
garden, pond and stream, to workshops and pub- 
lic buildings, that they might know something of 
the great world in which they lived Great na- 
tional days and great national heroes were cele- 
brated in song and story, and exercises were given 
to kindle in young hearts the first spark of 
patriotism and thrill them with the first faint 
sense of citizenship 

We forget, now that the schools have adopted 
so many of the ideas and practices of the kinder- 
garten and imagine that they originated them 
we forget that here in Boston Mrs Shaw's 
work was their beginning and that she had the 
wisdom and the imagination that enabled her to 
realize their value and their meaning 

Like Froebel she saw the child in the light of 
its possibilities and relationships Seeing, as has 
been said, "the uncommon quality in the common 
man" she was ready to bend every effort to abet 
its development 

Again like Froebel, she believed that in this 
land of ours with its conscious ideal of freedom, 
the kindergarten would find its true home and 

Mrs Shaw's Service to the Kindergarten 107 

its adequate embodiment She knew that the 
soul of America must be stirred into life in the 
souls of little children and that through the child 
in its midst the grown-up world would be born 
anew But she was not content to regenerate 
the poor alone She saw that the "poor little 
rich child and the rich little poor child" had 
many needs in common That they all trailed 
clouds, not always of glory and that for all 
alike citizenship in heaven must be won by pain- 
ful and persistent effort So her last venture 
was the opening of a kindergarten and a kinder- 
garten training school in connection with her pri- 
vate school at Number 6 Marlborough Street 
She was anxious that the divine spark in every 
child should be fed and nursed into living flame 
Upon whom should the task fall 9 Whose is this 
greatest of privileges' 2 Mrs Shaw's reply could 
be but one the mother's Her training school 
was established not only to prepare professional 
kindergartners She had in view the education 
of all girls for the vocation of motherhood 
This, to her mind, constituted the highest educa- 
tion of women. We ask ourselves, what do all 
these efforts signify * I think the answer is 
Mrs Shaw dreamed dreams She had a vision 
She, too, saw a new heaven and a new earth, 

108 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

a holy city, and at its heart she beheld divine 
childhood nurtured by divinely inspired mother- 

May consecrated obedience to this vision help 
to bring forth that redeemed humanity from 
which shall spring once again the healing of the 
nations ' 



MARY J GARLAND began kindergarten 
work in Boston in 1872 As a mature 
woman of more than thirty years, a teacher with 
many years of experience, and a constant stu- 
dent of educational principles and methods, she 
brought a well-trained and discriminating mind 
to a study of Froebel's philosophy of education 
and its special application in the kindergarten 

For a long period of years immediately preced- 
ing her new work, Miss Garland was resident 
teacher in a girls' boarding-school m Montreal 
a school of the English type with good scho- 
lastic standards and strict discipline The head 
schoolmistress, a woman of keen insight and hard 
judgment, recognized the rare quality of her 
young teacher and literally "took her in hand " 

Miss Garland regarded these years of hard pro- 
fessional work and the close personal relation 

110 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

which developed out of it as the most valuable 
experience of her life 

In their wide reading together Miss Garland 
and the head-mistress had come to know of the 
new education for little children, and Miss Gar- 
land was especially interested in it ff because of its 
naturalness," as she often said The preserva- 
tion of its naturalness became the outstanding 
purpose of her work in the kindergarten field, she 
was instinctively and by intention "a nurturer of 
nurturers " 

When the head-mistress retired from her 
school in Montreal, Miss Garland determined to 
investigate kindergarten work She went to 
Boston, with the hope of getting information and 
advice from Miss Elizabeth Peabody Miss Pea- 
body had gone to Germany to increase her own 
knowledge of the subject, but her sister, Mrs 
Horace Mann, welcomed Miss Garland, told her 
what she could of the meaning and purpose of the 
kindergarten, and urged her to study with Miss 
Alma Knege and her mother, whom Miss Pea- 
body had persuaded to come to Boston and open 
a kindergarten training school 

Miss Garland followed Mrs Mann's advice, 
feeling that definite study was the first intelli- 
gent step to take, in making her decision. The 

Mary J Garland 111 

course of study was limited to German books 
and such translations and interpretations as were 
made by the Kneges Madame Knege's book 
"The Child," a translation of excerpts from 
"Child and Child Nature," was compiled that 
winter Miss Garland had a working knowledge 
of German, and with her grasp of general educa- 
tional principles she was able to help in the prep- 
aration of this book Madame Kriege used to 
say that the ownership of the book could be 
placed only as the big boy placed that of the 
donkey over which the younger ones were quar- 
reling "It is all-our donkey " 

During this year of study, Miss Garland was 
sent to substitute in a so-called kindergarten, 
established under private patronage On her 
first day a visiting patron reported to Madame 
Kriege that the new teacher seemed very severe 
When this was taken up with Miss Garland, she 
replied "I mtended to be severe, Madime 
Kriege ,, the situation demanded it 9 there must be 
law in that kindergarten before there can be free- 
dom " Freedom under law was the wisely inter- 
preted, wisely applied principle of all of Miss 
Garland's work 

The Kneges returned to Germany at the end of 
that year, and Miss Garland decided to take a 

112 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

second test step for the kindergarten She 
started a private kindergarten, ?nd offered during 
the winter a short training course 

Since it was her purpose to discover real kin- 
dergarten values, she determined to carry as 
many children as possible into graded school 
classes, and to receive no children into the upper 
classes who had not completed her kindergarten 
course Such pioneer spirit entails great per- 
sonal sacrifice, a sacrifice which is especially great 
since educational returns can never be fully meas- 
ured and a true pioneer rarely reaps the reward 
even of recognition In this case there were, 
however, several unmistakable results an unu- 
sual school founded upon the kindergarten and 
developed out of it, a school which, in due course, 
provided a continuous, well-related education, 
truly Froebelian in character, for seventy chil- 
dren from four to twelve years of age, a kinder- 
garten training course in which there was a well- 
preserved balance between a nurturing spirit and 
an understanding mind, with groups of students 
judiciously selected for character, cultivation, 
and special fitness for child education , graduates 
whose hearts and minds were in their work, kin- 
dergartens in the poor districts of Boston, sup- 
ported by Mrs Quincy A Shaw, for whom Miss 

Maty J Garland 113 

Garland's work had been a convincing demon- 
stration and an inspiration 

These kindergartens supported by Mrs Shaw 
and chiefly directed by Miss Garland's graduates 
were not, of course, the sole determining factor in 
Boston's later decision in favor of public kinder- 
gartens It was easier, however, to induce the 
city to join the educational procession when a 
dozen well-equipped and efficiently directed kin- 
dergartens were available. 

Miss Garland foresaw and dreaded the ham- 
pering pressure of a formal public-school system 
on the kindergarten, but she had faith that the 
balance between law and license would be re- 
gained in time, and that ultimately Froebers 
ideal of a socialized school for all ages would be- 
come the conscious goal of education 

The school on Chestnut Street exemplified, 
forty years ago, the modern method which makes 
children the active agents in their own education, 
and which gives them every possible opportunity 
to do things for themselves and for other people 
The memories of the students in Miss Garland's 
training school at that tune are more of child- 
than of teacher-activity One typical memory 
is of the four-year-olds on the winding stairs of 
the old-fashioned house, each one carrying his 

114 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

chair "the best way " The children themselves, 
now mature men and women, have affectionate 
memories of the school and what they did there, 
and of the teachers 

Miss Garland held to the plan of taking into 
the upper classes of the school only children from 
her own kindergarten, until other, equally good, 
kindergartens had been established The kinder- 
garten and school classes continued until 1892, 
when Miss Garland and her associates decided 
that since the idea for which the school stood was 
being well demonstrated in other schools for chil- 
dren, they would devote themselves to the train- 
ing classes, using the public and private kinder- 
gartens of the city for practice ground Until 
this time kindergarten training courses required 
only one year's work Miss Garland's school of- 
fered two years to the students entering in the 
autumn of 1892, and the greater number took ad- 
vantage of the extended course 

The story of Miss Garland's life and influence 
would be incomplete without mention of some of 
the persons who studied and worked with her 
In the first training-class were two teachers from 
the Boston Elementary Schools Miss Rebecca J 
Weston and Miss Lucy H Simonds Miss Si- 
monds continued in public-school teaching some 

Mary J Gailand 115 

years and established a private training school for 
kindergartners, which did successful work until 
her health failed about 1912 

Miss Weston became Miss Garland's assistant 
in 1873, and soon after, her full associate She 
was a gracious personality, combining almost 
childlike enthusiasm with mature sympathy and 
good judgment In the school, the children just 
beyond the kindergarten were her special charge, 
and it can be truly said that these children "burst 
into reading" without conscious effort 

In their personal relations with students in 
training, these two rare women supplemented 
each other m an unusual way "Justice" and 
"Mercy" they were sometimes affectionately 
called by the students Not that Miss Garland's 
justice lacked the element of mercy (nor Miss 
Weston's mercy that of justice), but the sense of 
a universal and impersonal law without which 
there is no freedom especially characterized Miss 
Garland's own life and her teaching Miss Gar- 
land and Miss Weston worked and lived together 
until Miss Weston's death in August, 1895 

After Miss Weston's death, Miss Garland 
asked one of the senior students, a woman of some 
maturity and of experience with children of her 
own, to assist in general ways in the school 

116 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Under Miss Garland's tutelage and constant 
supervision, the general assistant became a regular 
teacher, and finally, an understudy for the direc- 
torship of the school 

It was Miss Garland's custom to be present for 
all class work, whether regular lessons or special 
lectures, in order that she might herself bring 
together the various parts of the course, filling in 
gaps, showing connections, and illuminating ob- 
scurities Except during short periods of absence 
on account of illness, she pursued this policy in 
the training of the new associate Almost daily, 
after classes, the subject-matter, the manner of 
presentation, the value to the students, and their 
response all were discussed in intimate and 
friendly but keenly critical talks 

Miss Garland never spared the truth, but her 
criticism was always constructive, she com- 
mended, amended, and inspired. A familiar warn- 
ing from her to students about to begin class criti- 
cism was "Give the positive side first 3 do not de- 
stroy, transform" She continually emphasized 
the power of unconscious tuition, and exemplified 
it in her life and teaching The idea of trying 
intermittently and consciously to be "a good ex- 
ample" was unthinkable One must be herself 
the same self everywhere and at all times All 

Mary J Garland 117 

conscious effort must be toward a steadily advanc- 
ing ideal, a bigger and better self "Let your 
light shme," she used to say, "don't flash it ' " 

Her only flashes were those of wit A rich 
imagination and a good sense of humor made her 
delightful in story and repartee No school 
party was complete without her, she enjoyed 
the fun, and helped to make it She was men- 
tally alert in games and puzzles, and her rhymes 
and jingles were clever and amusing She was 
foresighted, as well as quick-witted, and her 
ability to see the value or danger of a tendency 
was well-nigh uncanny She had frequently 
nurtured or nipped a bud almost before her as- 
sociate was aware of its existence at least before 
she had realized its significance 

Miss Garland died at the age of sixty-seven, in 
July, 1901 Happily, she was able to be with 
her class on graduation day in June The writer, 
her associate for six years, was her chosen 
successor and continued the kindergarten training 
school in Miss Garland's name A model school 
with kindergarten and primary classes was added 
to the work, and also, in 1902, a brief course of 
study, founded on the Froebelian philosophy of 
life, for girls who did not wish to prepare for 
kindergarten work 

118 Pioneers of ike Kindergarten in America 

The new course was inspired by the woman- 
making side of Miss Garland's teacher-training 
course, and demonstrated the mother-training 
suggested and partially defined by Froebel This 
course still continues as the Garland School of 
Homemaking The kindergarten training course 
(with the children's school) was discontinued in 
1909, because the requisite scholastic training 
could no longer be maintained by tuitions without 
a sacrifice of personal and professional values, 
especially in the selection of candidates and the 
restriction of numbers 

Miss Garland had always insisted upon charac- 
ter and cultivation as essential qualifications for 
a teacher , ability to pass school examinations was 
never sufficient proof to her of a candidate's fit- 
ness for her important task of developing human 
power Rarely was a student received without a 
long, often delightful, morning or afternoon of 
acquaintance a session during which the best 
good of the kindergarten and the best good of the 
applicant were considered with equal care It 
was, in fact, a sympathetic and discriminating bit 
of vocational guidance 

It was also Miss Garland's conviction that 
classes should be small and much of the work 
individual and personal This seemed to her 

Mary J Garland 119 

almost as important for the students in training 
as for the kindergarten children 

Many talented young women came under the 
influence of Miss Garland, and their talents grew 
and flowered A few of the graduates whose 
work is known, or should be known, from genera- 
tion to generation are Laliah B Pmgree, the 
first supervisor of kindergartens in Boston, Sarah 
E Wiltse, one of the early story-writers, Anne L 
Page, whose fine work is a story by itself, Harriet 
S Jenks (Mrs James B Greenough), who made 
early and useful compilations of kindergarten 
songs, Emilie Poulsson, of "Finger Play and 
Story" fame, Caroline D Aborn, the present 
supervisor of kindergartens in Boston (1923). 
Space does not permit a complete list of those 
who have contributed to the progress of the kin- 
dergarten, by their work with and for children 
in kindergarten, home, or community, but there 
are many 

Miss Elizabeth Peabody was a cherished part 
of the professional and social life of the school, a 
familiar and friendly figure to the children and to 
training students In the "Kindergarten Messen- 
ger," Miss Peabody's publication, there were, in 
the seventies, frequent references to Miss Gar- 
land's work and occasionally a very good gradua- 

120 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

tion thesis was printed There was so little 
printed matter at that time that every simple and 
clear exposition of Froebel's principles and his 
kindergarten method of application was welcome 

It was natural, then, that with these friendly 
memories Miss Garland and Miss Weston should 
take especial interest in the idea of founding the 
Elizabeth Peabody House as a permanent memo- 
rial to the kindergarten pioneer The first thou- 
sand dollars for the memorial was given in 
response to notes written by Miss Weston during 
the spring preceding her death The gifts came 
chiefly from the families of children who had been 
in Miss Garland's and Miss Weston's kinder- 
garten and school 

The house was opened in April, 1896, as a 
kindergarten settlement Miss Garland's in- 
terest in it was unfailing She made frequent, 
often daily visits, and to those who had never seen 
her in her own school, her occasional morning 
circle or story-hour in Elizabeth Peabody House 
kindergarten was a revelation of what it means to 
live with children She wished to make that a 
kindergarten of the highest type, and in those 
early years, under her guidance, it fulfilled its 
purpose as the permeating spirit of the neighbor- 
hood in and out of the house. A social worker 

Mary J Garland 121 

and the kindergartner, both living in the settle- 
ment house, worked together and in frequent con- 
ference with Miss Garland for the improvement 
of home life in their neighborhood The kinder- 
garten is a memorial to Miss Weston, and a grow- 
ing fund in Miss Garland's name has been created 
by her graduates and friends to help in its 

Miss Garland also helped to organize the East- 
ern Kindergarten Association and was for many 
years its president This association remained in 
existence until within a few years, when a state 
organization of kindergartners took up the work 
of conserving and propagatmg kindergarten 

She did very little speaking or visiting outside 
of New England, in her nearly thirty years in 
Boston During the early years she was too 
much occupied in studying and perfecting her 
demonstrations later, she was not strong and the 
nervous strain of traveling and of being in crowds 
was too great 

Unfortunately, she had limited time and 
strength for writing, also, and has left only a few 
short addresses and magazine articles She was 
loath to put plans and methods into print lest 
they should outlive their usefulness 

122 Pioneers of fhe Kindergarten m America 

Miss Garland was called a conservative \ she 
was, rather, a conservator, discarding slowly in 
order to hold fast to the essential good She was 
first drawn to Froebel's idea of education by its 
naturalness, and she never forgot that in God's 
universe both physical and spiritual freedom are 
achieved through intelligent obedience to His 
laws Obedience to a wise and loving interpreter 
of these laws must, therefore, be the first step 
toward freedom for a little child 

A simple statement of facts with suggestion of 
underlying principles is not a hard task, it is the 
revelation of a personality which is difficult A 
subtle something more than vision, character, 
and a well-stored mind is required to win loyal 
friends and disciples for a cause, that something 
more Miss Garland possessed It is of her as a 
person, with human qualities and interests, that 
her students like best to think There are many 
for whom the most vital part of the training 
course came after school hours, sitting on the floor 
around her in her special sofa corner dis- 
cussing the day's problems and ranging far afield 
into problems of living As one of the graduates 
said, after her death "She was the best friend 
a girl could have." 



MISS ANNE L PAGE, one of the first 
American women to be kindled by the 
philosophy of Froebel, and for many years 
one of the most profound of his interpreters, 
especially of his spiritual ideals, was born in Dan- 
vers, Massachusetts, in October, 1828, and died 
in May, 1913 She was one of the founders of 
the American Froebel Union, in association with 
Miss Elizabeth Peabody, Mrs Maria Kraus- 
Boelte, Mrs Elizabeth Corry Agassiz, Mrs 
Pauline Agassiz Shaw, Mrs Ida Agassiz Higgin- 
son, Mrs Horace Mann, Mrs Asa Gray, Mrs 
Kate Gannett Wells, Miss Mary J Garland, 
Miss R J Weston, Dr William T Harris, Pro- 
fessor John Kraus, Henry Barnard, Mr Augustus 
Hemenway, Mr W N Hailmann, General 
Eaton, and others Miss Page was secretary of 

1 Memorial Sketch reprinted, by permission, from the 
"Kindergarten Magazine." 


Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America, 

the union, and in this position she corresponded 
with the Baroness von Marenholtz-Bulow for 
several years, and was instrumental in having 
some of the writings of this distinguished woman 
translated into English In one of her letters to 
Miss Page the baroness spoke with special ap- 
proval of the work of Mrs Kraus-Boelte, and 
even on her death-bed she wrote to Miss Page, 
thanking her for her kindness 

When a \oung woman, Miss Page conducted a 
private school m Danvers, in the beautiful old 
home in which she lived throughout her life, one 
of the finest of the old family homes of Essex 
County Her father was a prominent man in 
Danvers, and her mother was a descendant of the 
Putnam family, of which General Israel Putnam 
was the most distinguished member Lucy Lar- 
com wrote a long poem about Miss Page's mother, 
in which she called her the "sweet-pea lady," be- 
cause of her great love of flowers Miss Page's 
lifelong interest in botany was undoubtedly de- 
veloped by her mother, whose beautiful garden 
and fine conservatory gave her a wide reputation 
In the words of Lucy Larcom 

The dear old garden let alone 
Because she loved it as a child 

Anne L Page 125 

Breathed out a sweetness like her own, 
Its soil to lilies running wild 

Mrs Alice Hanson Witherbee of New York, 
who was a pupil in Miss Page's school in "the 
sixties," in speaking of the love of all beautiful 
things in nature as one of her strongest charac- 
teristics, says 

There were numerous little excursions from the school, 
perhaps to the brook to gather plants for the goldfish 
tank, or elsewhere for mulberry leaves to feed the silk- 
worms, or to Burleigh woods to find the first hepaticas 
and anemones under the dry brown leaves Best of all, 
Miss Page was with us, pointing out this or that thing of 
interest, leading us to observe carefully and yet we 
thought we were just having a great lark 

Her interest in botany was lifelong She 
translated from the French a little book on bot- 
any named "Flower Object Lessons " One of 
her precious possessions was a diploma which she 
received for a collection of ferns which she ex- 
hibited at the World's Cotton Exhibition m New 
Orleans in 1885 One of the elements of the 
friendship between Miss Page and me was the 
fact that I, too, won a prize for "The best collec- 
tion of Canadian ferns " 

It was soon after her graduation from high 

126 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

school the first high school opened in Danvers, 
which she entered when she was twenty years old 
that Miss Page began her private school She 
did not call it a kindergarten, but she claimed 
that it was "kmdergartemsh " It became 
more and more kmdergartemsh as the years went 
by Her mother's training, her love of nature, 
her conscious growth in freedom, her recognition 
of the value of the child-soul, and of the duty of 
the home, the school, and the church to aid the 
child in his growth toward the divine, made her a 
true Froebelian before she learned that Froebel 
ever was born It was natural, therefore, that 
she read with great joy all Froebel's books, as 
they were translated into English, and that his 
philosophy became more and more consciously a 
vital element in her own educational and spiritual 

When she was nearly fifty years old, Miss Page 
decided to make a thorough, practical study of 
the principles and system of Froebel in order that 
she might devote her life to training young 
women as kindergartners She graduated from 
the kindergarten training school conducted in 
Boston by Miss Garland and Miss Weston in 
1879, an( i delivered the graduation address. I 
have a letter written to Miss Page by Miss Pea- 

Anne L Page 127 

body, requesting her to deliver the same address 
at a meeting which Miss Peabody was to at- 
tend In this letter Miss Peabody speaks very 
highly of Miss Page and says, "Mary says she 
cried for joy uncontrollably when she heard you " 
"Mary" was the sister of Miss Peabody, and the 
wife of Horace Mann, the most distinguished 
educator of Massachusetts 

After completing her course as a kindergartner, 
Miss Page worked in a Boston kindergarten, 
voluntarily selecting one of the districts where she 
might aid m bringing sunshine and cheer to the 
lives of poor children 

For more than thirty years she conducted a 
training class for young women in Danvers 

Miss Page had the true spirit of a kinder- 
gartner Mrs Witherbee, who was her pupil 
many years before she graduated as a kmder- 
gartner, says in speaking of the school, ''What I 
am sure of is that we were all very industrious 
and very happy" She says further "When 
you admit that Miss Page was one of the first to 
take up kindergarten work, that fact is only half 
of the story She was away ahead of her time in 
other matters concerning the young and their 
education " She closes her description of Miss 
Page's school in Danvers in 1855 by asking, 

128 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

"Was there ever such a delightful school in the 
world 1" 

Miss Page was for years a member of the school 
committee of Danvers She suggested the first 
free kindergarten in Danvers, and helped to 
found the association that earned it on for years 
She was one of the founders of the Danvers 
Women's Association, and till the end of her life 
she was deeply interested in all reasonable move- 
ments for the fuller development of women 
Equal suffrage she believed in with a calm faith, 
and she was convinced of the absolute need for 
the higher and broader education of women It 
was natural that she should at once see the value 
of the modern movement in favor of school 
gardens, because she realized so fully the influ- 
ence of loving interest in flowers and of tender 
care of them, in her own spiritual growth 

Miss Page was a profoundly religious woman 
I have never known any other woman or any man 
whose personal influence and life so quickly lifted 
one into a higher and serener spiritual at- 
mosphere She did not talk much about spiritual 
life, but she was manifestly spiritual More 
than any other kindergartner I have known, she 
became a kindergartner because of a clear convic- 

Anne L Page 129 

tion that it was her supreme duty as a religious 
woman to train as many children as possible, and 
later to train as many young women as possible, 
in the higher and more spiritual ideals of educa- 
tion She accepted Froebel's definition of educa- 
tion as "a conscious growth towards the divine" 
as the basic ideal in all her teaching and training 
Her religious philosophy and her educational 
philosophy were in perfect harmony Her notes 
show that she made wide and careful studies in 
nature, child life, comparative religions, historical 
evolution, and psychology 

Among her papers was the following prayer in 
her own writing 

Father and Saviour of all ' May the word given for 
the life of men on earth and of angels m heaven be our 
constant guide May it soon come to all men, enlighten- 
ing their minds and awakening their love May we be 
fed from day to day with the bread of life, even, with 
the perception that all we have for body or mind comes 
from Thee continually Help us to find something to 
love in those whom we dislike, even those who have in- 
jured us Forgive them and thus open our souls to 
receive Thy forgiveness for all our sins 

Miss Page's students preserve her letters as 
treasures The following extract from a letter 

130 Pioneers of tlie Kindergarten in America 

written to one of them reveals some of her charac- 

You must not get out of tune with the twentieth cen- 
tury I am privileged to do so, as I had nearly seventy- 
five years of the nineteenth It is a grand time I 
love it, and try to like it 1 It is the time for stirring 
things up, and when they are well stirred and settled 
again, they will be better than ever they were 

She retained her intellectual clearness, her 
kindly humor, and her epigrammatic and analytic 
power up to the last day of her life The com- 
mercial agitation in regard to the work of 
Madame Montesson led one of her former 
students to ask her opinion of the work of 
Madame Montesson Her reply was, "My dear, 
she mistakes the channel for the stream " To 
another of her prominent students she said two 
weeks before her death, "My dear, she was a 
laboratory woman, and Psyche never worked in a 
laboratory " 

To me she said "Madame Montesson culti- 
vates sense perception, but does not reveal and 
cultivate the organic unity of the child's own life, 
or his unity with humanity as a whole She cul- 
tivates one of the child's departments of power, 
Froebel planted seed thoughts of infinite growth 

Anne L Page 131 

She uses each kind of material in the performance 
of repetitions of the same act in which the chil- 
dren are merely imitators , Froebel used materials 
so that each material given to the children gave 
them unlimited opportunities to make new plans 
each day in harmony with fundamental laws and 
thus made them original and creative " 

One of Miss Page's friends, writing about her, 

"Her mind was filled with fundamental principles of 
law and order by which she directed her own intellectual 
and spiritual growth and the growth of her students " 

This quotation gives a just conception of her 
basic philosophy relative to the source of her 
richest growth and of her highest success 

I first heard of Miss Page when she wrote to me 
asking me to speak at a meeting of the American 
Kindergarten Union in Boston in 1878 I could 
not go, so I did not meet her till several years 
later After I knew her I went to see her every 
time I was in Massachusetts It was worth while 
to do so 

She went with me to the Essex County Teach- 
ers' Convention a few months before her death 
The gentleman who spoke before me advocated 
the erection of a monument to a general born in 

132 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Essex County, who had distinguished himself in 
the War of the Rebellion I began my address 
by saying "That is right' We should com- 
memorate the noble deeds of brave men, but 
surely the lives of noble women deserve memorial 
monuments, too A gracious woman came with 
me to this meeting She was born m this county, 
and she did more for her native county, her state, 
her country, and the world, than any man ever 
born in Essex County Erect the monument to 
the general, but do not forget Anne Page " 

Miss Page has already a most appropriate 
monument in the form of a kindergarten building 
at Wellesley College It is the gift of one of her 
most grateful students, and is named the "Anne 
L Page Memorial " It is dedicated to the 
illustration and interpretation of the philosophy 
of the kindergarten, and stands very appropri- 
ately near the entrance to the college grounds 

The erection of this kindergarten building in 
connection with one of the leading colleges of the 
world for the higher training of womanhood, 
marks an epoch m the history of education. It 
is a recognition of the value of the kindergarten 
Given as a loving and reverent tribute to the work 
of one woman, it will aid in kindling, beautifying 
and dignifying the lives of many women. 

Anne L Page 133 

Two years before she died she said to an old 
friend, "We are going on through temporary old 
age to our eternal youth " Six months before 
she died, she said, "I am just waiting to go home " 

Miss Larcom's verses about Miss Page's mother 
apply with perfect appropriateness to Miss Page 

The dawn-like sunset of her age 

In gentle thoughts and deeds she spent, 

What life can show a whiter page, 
A lovelier picture of content 9 

From the full garden of her heart 
She scattered blossoms everywhere, 

Receiving only to impart, 

No joy was sweet she could not share 



MISS BURRITT'S service to the cause of 
kindergarten education in the United 
States was of unusual significance because of the 
propitious occasion upon which the service was 
rendered At the time of the Philadelphia Ex- 
position, popularly termed "the Centennial," the 
kindergarten was still very new in the United 
States It had become favorably known in sev- 
eral cities in Boston through Miss Peabody and 
Madame Kriege, in New York through Madame 
Kraus-Boelte, in St Louis through Miss Blow 
and Dr Harris, in Milwaukee through Dr and 
Mrs Hailmann,, in California through Miss Mar- 
wedel., and in a few other places The general 
public, however, had little knowledge of the arms 
and methods of the new institution, and the ex- 
position gave them the first opportunity to see a 
kindergarten in operation The interest shown 

Ruth Burntt 135 

in it exceeded all expectations According to re- 
ports, "thousands thronged to see the new educa- 
tional departure and remained hours afterwards to 
ask questions " The "Philadelphia Ledger" re- 
ported that "not only was the alco\ e for visitors 
crowded but every door and window was filled 
with beaming faces " 

The knowledge of the kindergarten thus gamed 
during the six months that the exposition was 
open was evidently carried to all parts of the 
country An estimate made in 1880 four years 
after the exposition showed kindergartens to 
have been organized in thirty states, and the num- 
ber of these to have increased from less than one 
hundred before the exposition to four hundred 
in the four years following There were many 
influences that contributed to this increase, but 
the first-hand knowledge of the new institution 
gained at Philadelphia was without doubt the 
largest factor The exposition, in fact, marked 
an epoch in the progress of the kindergarten 

And what of the woman whose demonstration 
was so largely responsible for these gratifying re- 
sults' 2 Very little is known of Miss Burntt's 
early life except that she had been a very suc- 
cessful primary teacher in Wisconsin for several 

136 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

years According to her own story, as told many 
years later, she gave up teaching in 1872, intend- 
ing to take up some other line of work In Ap- 
pleton, Wisconsin, however, she chanced upon a 
group of children playing with kindergarten 
playthings, and followed them to the kinder- 
garten which they attended It was in the Ap- 
pleton Collegiate Institute, a private institution 
founded by Mr Anson Ballard, an enthusiast in 
education, and developed on the lines of Pesta- 
lozzi and Froebel The kindergartner who had 
been engaged when the institution was opened, a 
year or two before, was Miss Mary Frazer Mac- 
Donald, a brilliant young Scotch woman who had 
been trained in Germany At the time of Miss 
Bumtt's visit, however, Miss MacDonald had re- 
signed, and since the temporary substitute was not 
successful, Miss Burritt was offered the position, 
which she accepted In speaking of this part of 
her history, over forty years later she said 

"I soon found that you could not run a kinder- 
garten without training, arranged for a leave of 
absence, and started East to take a course in my 
new work " 

Continuing her story, she said that the first true 
kindergarten she saw was a German kindergarten 
somewhere in New Jersey, but that her real in- 

Euth Burntt 137 

spiration came from a visit to Madame Kraus- 
Boelte Her first training was taken with Mrs 
Ogden, in Columbus, Ohio From there she went 
to Boston where Miss Peabody arranged for her 
to take some work with Miss Garland, who had 
taken over the work begun by Madame Knege 
Having secured this training, Miss Burntt re- 
turned to Appleton and resumed her work in the 
Appleton Collegiate Institute, of which Dr 
David Starr Jordan had become president In 
reply to an inquiry concerning Miss Burntt, Dr 
Jordan spoke of her as "a bright, gracious young 
woman who had been placed in charge of the 
kindergarten work to succeed Miss MacDonald, 
and who left when the school was closed after a 
very successful year's work " He characterized 
her as "energetic, kindly, friendly, and well 
liked " The school closed at the end of the year 
1873-74, however, for lack of funds, and Miss 
Burntt was mvited to take charge of a school in 
Boston She accepted the position and remained 
in it for two years 

There is no record of Miss Burntt's work in 
this position, but it must have been of a high 
order, since in 1876 she was selected by the Froe- 
bel Society of Boston to take charge of the kin- 
dergarten to be conducted at the approaching ex- 

138 Pioneers of tJie Kindergarten in America 

position in Philadelphia The honor was a high 
one indeed, and it is not surprising that the choice 
should ha\e been challenged In telling of her 
experience Miss Burntt said that there was con- 
siderable rivalry between the different schools in 
those da}s, and the appointment of an unknown 
person to demonstrate the work at the Centennial 
aroused the opposition of the other schools Her 
spirit was shown by her action She said 

'When I learned of the opposition that had 
arisen, I sat down and wrote the Commissioner 
of Education, offering my resignation I told 
him I would rather give way to some one else I 
realized the responsibility of such a position, and 
would be onh too glad to give way to some one 
better fitted for the place The Commissioner's 
reply was quick and emphatic 'Under the cir- 
cumstances, >ou are the one for the place You 
will stay where you are That settles it ' " 

The setting of the kindergarten, and the kin- 
dergarten itself were thus described in the "Phila- 
delphia Ledger" while the Exposition was in 

Among the interesting things to "be seen at the great 
Exposition, not the least attractive to me has been the 
Centennial Kindergarten Many pleasant hours have I 
spent there watching the little orphans for whom kindly 

Ruth Burritt 139 

care has provided this beneficent training One morn- 
ing late in the summer, I remember with special delight, 
I walked from the Art Gallery across the great lawn, 
brilliant with glowing flower beds, towards the Woman's 
Pavilion, at the right of which is its small "Annex" 
The sun was bright and hot on the lawn , but the Kinder- 
garten Annex stands on a grassy terrace beneath the 
old trees of the Park, and there all was cool and shad- 
owy As I drew near the building, I heard the sweet 
fresh voices of the children They had just marched 
in from their dressing room, led by their teacher, and 
stood in a circle singing their morning hymn The 
pretty kindergarten room was gay with blooming plants 
and the music of birds The little boys in blue dresses 
and snowy collars, the little girls in rose color with white 
aprons looked bnght and lovely as the flowers on the 
lawn without , and the shadows of the trees, playing on 
the floor through the large open windows, gave coolness 
and freshness to the scene When the hymn was ended, 
little hands were folded and little heads bowed, as all 
said in unison with their teacher their short morning 
prayer Then singing a spirited air they began their 
march, moving with evolutions that imitated as their song 
described, the windings of a river Keeping time and 
step they move gaily along, till at last each of the little 
band stands facing its own miniature desk and tiny 
chair, and at the teacher's signal, takes its place to begin 
the work of the day 

The foregoing was followed by a description 
of the exercises of the morning, consisting of a 

Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

period of hand work, a lunch period, a period of 
games and marching, a second period of hand 
-work, and the closing exercises too lengthy to 
quote It \v as in this setting that Miss Burntt 
conducted the Centennial kindergarten and "made 
the \ery interesting explanations she was called 
upon to make of the method to the thoubands who 
thronged to see the children work and play and 
remained for hours to ask questions and be in- 
structed by the very successful kindergartner " 
Since the kindergarten was still so new, it is of 
interest to know that the money to build the 
1 .Annex" was contributed by a woman from Con- 
necticut, the material by the Steiger Company of 
New York, the chairs and the beautiful inlaid 
tables by some one else, and the pictures, curtains, 
and other things needed, by still others The 
children were from an orphan asylum, and ranged 
from three to seven years in age In order to be 
sure of the children's presence and their proper 
appearance, Miss Burntt found it necessary to 
live in the asylum with them, and by doing so 
she was enabled to effect many needed reforms in 
the children's care and treatment 

The quality of Miss Burntt's work with her or- 
phaned children, and her lucid explanations of 
the principles upon which the work of the kinder- 

Ruth Burrvtt 141 

garten is based made a deep impression upon the 
people of Philadelphia those of the Society of 
Friends in particular, and when the exposition 
closed she was engaged by this organization to 
add a kindergarten to their cluster of guarded 
schools, at Eighteenth and Race streets And 
then, according to Miss Peabody in the "Kinder- 
garten Messenger" of 1877, 

quite as naturally a class of ladies, mostly Friends, gath- 
ered to learn of her the truly divine art of developing 
children before they should be sent to a book school, in 
which she had proved herself an expert, as her daily 
discourses on the theory and modus operandi had proved 
her an adept in Froebel's philosophy 

Miss Peabody added that 

it is a most important incident in the American history 
of this great reform in the methods of early education 
that the kindergarten system has been accepted by that 
part of the Church Universal which makes it a principle 
to give a "guarded education" to their youth, and who 
express by that very phrase Froebel's meaning of the 
word kindergarten 

The training school which was thus evolved 
was the first kindergarten training school to be 
opened in Philadelphia At the close of its first 
year it graduated eleven young women The 

14?2 Pioneers of the Kindergarten vn America 

"Philadelphia Press" gave an interesting account 
of the graduating exercises The purpose of 
these as stated by Miss Bumtt was to show the 
hand work of the children, and to have explained 
through the graduates of the training class the 
philosophy of Fnedench Froebel's system Each 
essay, therefore, represented some phase of the 
Froebehan doctrine, and at the close, Miss Bumtt 
herself gave a further explanation of the workings 
of the system 

The training school thus inaugurated, and 
known as the Centennial Kindergarten Train- 
ing School of Philadelphia, continued in opera- 
tion for several years, and its work was ranked 
by Miss Peabody as equal to that of the other 
leaders in the early years Miss Peabody in- 
cluded it in the number in which she gave her own 
course ol lectures, each year, on the moral and reli- 
gious education of children Among the gradu- 
ates of the school were many who have had an 
active part in the progress of the kindergarten 
movement Among the best-known of these were 
Mrs Van Kirk, long a kindergarten training 
teacher in Philadelphia, Lelia E Partridge, an 
educational writer, and Mrs Eliza A Blaker, 
president of Teachers' College, Indianapolis, 
Indiana Mrs Blaker described Miss Bumtt as 

Ruth Burntt 143 

being small in stature with dark hair and eyes, 
and very successful in her work, both with chil- 
dren and adults 

Of Miss Burntt's life after she gave up her 
training work, sometime in the eighties, very little 
has been known until recently This story of her 
part in the development of the kindergarten move- 
ment could not have been written, m fact, had 
not Miss Anna Irene Jenkins of Pasadena, Cali- 
fornia, discovered her in that city in 1912, and, 
sensing Miss Burntt's relation to the pioneer his- 
tory of the kindergarten movement, secured from 
her important data concerning her life and work 
These were given from memory only, as all her 
historical data had been destroyed in her many 
movings During the years that she had been 
lost to the knowledge of her former associates she 
had married, but the marriage had, apparently, 
been an unhappy one She had, therefore, been 
divorced and resumed her maiden name, but re- 
tained the title of "Mrs " It was not long after 
this that she was stricken with asthma, and went 
to California in the effort to recover her health 
The ten or more years that she had already spent 
in California when Miss Jenkins found her had 
not contributed materially to that result how- 
ever, and she remained an invalid to the end 

14i Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Miss Jenkins's story of her first meeting with 
Mrs Burntt is best told in her own words 

It was during the summer of 1912 that I first saw 
Mrs Burntt entering the room of a fnend of mine in 
Pasadena , a wee bit lady in quaint old fashioned gown, 
a short full shoulder cape, a tiny black bonnet standing 
erect upon her snow white hair, a roomy basket on her 
arm, and owning a pair of bright eyes which fairly 
pierced the very soul of me' Introductions following, 
she promptly demanded, "Who trained you ? " "Stella 
McCarty and Eliza A Blaker," I replied Like a flash 
came the return "Why, you're my granddaughter 
then ' Eliza Cooper Blaker is one of my girls '" With 
that came a catechism not soon forgotten, for it had been 
5 ears since she had talked with a Kmdergartner and 
though self banished, she suddenly found herself hungry 
for news, while I was put upon my mettle to render a 
good accounting of stewardship for the present day kin- 
dergartners Realizing that ours was a work decidedly in 
the making, and that pioneer autobiography would 
shortly be impossible, I invited her to have tea with me 
a few dajs later when with pad and pencil in hand the 
catechism was reversed 

The facts secured as the result of this catechism 
are those referred to in this chapter as her own 

Miss Jenkins said further that she called to sec 
Mrs Burntt occasionally after this visit, but that 

Ruth Burntt 145 

the kindergarten legislative campaign (that for 
the enactment of the mandatory-on-petition law) 
in which she was then engaged, was too strenuous 
to enable her to do so frequently She said that 
some months later Mrs Burntt had a fall in 
which she broke her hip, and since the break re- 
fused to heal she was never able to walk again 
As time passed, another infirmity came upon her 
the loss of sight Miss Jenkins tells of calling 
upon her in a sanatorium at Glendale in 1920 
after this had happened, and finding her very 
much depressed feeling, in fact, that her life 
had been a failure How Miss Jenkins helped 
to bring her out of her dark mood and to see her 
life in its relation to educational progress has 
been told by Miss Jenkins herself She says 

Then, because she could not see, I put into the touch 
of my hands and into my voice all of the sympathy and 
understanding I could muster, while I told her how 
wrong she was Beginning with my own errand that 
day in Glendale, I pictured the opportunities for service 
which constantly came to me as I lectured here and 
there I told her of the kindergarten children, of the 
young kindergartners whom I could help to find them- 
selves , and every word of every lecture, and every child 
whose life I touched, and every girl I strengthened for 
service was Ruth Rose Burntt speaking and living anew 
And / was only one of her granddaughters I I recalled 

146 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

the radiating influence of Eliza A Blaker with her great 
School at Indianapolis, and reminded her of those other 
"daughters" of hers gone to the four quarters of the 
globe of whom she had spoken with such assurance in 
1912 , that the touch of inspiration Ruth Rose Burritt had 
held out was an unquenchable torch, and it would go on 
kindling other torches to eternm Nor did I cease and 
leave her till she bore again the look of the Ruth Burritt 
I had met in 1912 alert and keen 

Mrs Burntt's end came in Glendale, in April, 
1921, soon after she had passed her eighty-ninth 
birthday At Pasadena she was given a burial 
service such as was due to one of her worth and 
accomplishments At the simple service there 
were ten kindergartners present, representing 
Mrs Blaker's graduates, the local kindergarten 
organizations, the International Kindergarten 
Union, and the National Education Association 
The card attached to the flowers which covered 
her as a blanket contained these words 

In grateful appreciation of this friend of little children 
whose loving pioneering for the kindergarten prepared 
a warm welcome for us who have come after 



A FINE personality ever defies analysis It 
leaves an integral impression on the minds 
of others which a recital of its constituent ele- 
ments fails to explain Nevertheless, there are 
usually certain outstanding qualities that serve as 
aids to memory, as pegs whereon to hang the rec- 
ollection of our association with the person, 
and of the joys and benefits we owe to that 

My association with Miss Haven extended 
over a period of several decades, and I will try 
to set down here a few of the characteristics which 
left the deepest mark upon my mind Of these 
the most conspicuous were her sanity, her ex- 
tremely disinterested devotion to the cause of hu- 
man progress by means of education, and, if I 
may use the word in the broadest sense, her piety 

The kindergarten of which she was for many 
years the principal was established in the year 

14-8 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

1877 the first free kindergarten in the city of 
New York Connected with it from the first was 
a normal department for the training of kmder- 
gartners The mjstical element in Froebel's 
teaching \tas still at that time predominant in 
the methods used by his followers There was a 
certain orthodoxy, a clinging to the letter of the 
master's doctrine, a somewhat blind cult which 
failed to distinguish between the true metal and 
the dross Miss Haven's sanity was shown in 
the shrewdness and clearness with which she 
achieved the necessary distinction Her mmd 
was lucid, transparent, averse to everything that 
savored of vagueness and nebulousness. She 
loved the children in so far she was a faithful 
disciple of Froebel He answered the prompt- 
ings of her own heart yearnings But she was re- 
solved to be of actual use to the little human be- 
ings entrusted to her care first by providing for 
them a sunny atmosphere, a real garden in which 
the human plants might happily expand, and 
from which all that was distressful and evil in 
human experience might be excluded, a sunny 
plot on which none of the shadows of adult life 
should fall Next, she selected from the gifts 
and occupations those which would actually stim- 
ulate the mental development of the children, 

Caroline T Haven 149 

and those which might assist in developing their 
social feelings 

The same attitude she impressed upon the 
young women whom she trained for the profession 
of kindergartening, and for them in particular 
the example of her constant devotion, combined 
with her New England honesty and uprightness, 
was precious She is remembered by them, and 
well deserves to be 

Her disinterestedness was shown notably in 
money matters We were not able, in the early 
days of our institution, to offer her the salary to 
which she was entitled But she never asked for 
an increase, and it was only in a chance way that 
I learned of the tempting offers that were from 
time to time made to her by other schools She 
never even intimated that she had received such 
offers She was loyal to the Ethical Culture 
School, as she said, because of the humanitarian 
principles on which it was founded, and pecuniary 
considerations had no influence upon her 

When I undertake to say a few words about 
Miss Haven's piety, I am concerned to convey the 
right meaning Piety is the gift and the aliment 
of a certain faith, and this faith may express it- 
self under different forms, or without form, by 
sweet intuition Especially, I thinly it consists 

150 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

in the acceptance of the hard knocks one gets m 
life the contrarieties, the -\ icissitudes, and at last 
even poignant physical suffering without any at- 
tempt to understand the why and wherefore, since 
the capacity of the human understanding is 
strictly limited, and to find rest and to gain tran- 
quillity in doing the duty nearest at hand The 
faith which this involves is faith that the moral 
and spiritual order may be trusted to justify 
itself without the plea of a human advocate, to 
do the duty nearest at hand even when there is 
little to be done, except to he still on one's couch 
of pain, to keep the shadow as far as possible 
from falling on other lives, and perhaps to give 
wise counsel now and then to visiting friends 
This was certainly Miss Haven's way in the last 
months of her earthly existence Her aspect was 
benign and consoling, and of the cruel disease 
which attacked her she was, in a fine sense, not 
the victim but the conqueror. 


THERE is no profession that so feeds and 
determines the mind and spirit of youth as 
that of teacher, and of all teachers there 
is none whose influence is more direct than that 
of the kindergarten training teacher This fact 
is shown by the very terms we use to designate a 
kindergartner "one of Miss Wheelock's girls," 
"one of Mrs Putnam's girls " It is as one of 
Miss Haven's girls that I am writing Girlhood 
passes into womanhood and the sense of spiritual 
daughterhood does not pass Rather it grows 
richer and deepens as life takes on more and richer 
meaning, and the woman becomes capable of a 
fuller interpretation of the noble teaching given 
to the girl a becomes more completely aware that 
"A spirit communicated is a perpetual posses- 
sion," that work like Miss Haven's passed beyond 
instruction to the plane of art, it was herself and 
what was best in herself that she communicated 
Sweetness, sanity, balance, power, a quiet dig- 

152 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

mty and composure, born of a living trust in the 
conquering power of Righteousness and Truth 
these she affirmed in her character, these she 

That only he who is still learning can teach, 
was part also of her active creed, and was answer- 
able for that openness of mind, that steady 
growth of thought, that constantly broadening 
vision, of \vhich one always became especially 
aware upon returning to Miss Haven after long 
absence She allowed always a great freedom 
of personal opinion, respecting all such as were 
sincere, and so taught her girls to hold a differ- 
ence of opinion without animosity and with 
respect for an opponent 

Often it has seemed to me as if the way Miss 
Haven did her work expressed her in a very deep 
and complete sense, impelling all who came un- 
der her influence to follow its method, to seek 
its source of inspi ration She had learned that 
lesson from Nature which Matthew Arnold 
prayed to learn when he sang * 

One lesson, Nature, let me learn of thee, 
One lesson which in every wind is blown j 
One lesson of two duties kept at one 
Though the loud world proclaim their enmity. 


A Loving Appreciation 153 

Of toil unsevered from tranquillity, 
Of labor, that in lasting fruit outgrows 
Far noisier schemes, accomplished in repose 
Too great for haste, too high for rivalry 

She was fortunate in being for twenty-eight 
years a part of a great ethical movement and of a 
school which was the living expression of that 
movement, which affirmed the truths by which she 
lived The Ethical Culture School was equally 
fortunate, in having at the head of its Training 
Department one who so transcendently in- 
terpreted its spirit to the hundreds of young 
women who came under her influence 

Her native state was Massachusetts, and what 
we mean, in the finest and best sense, by "the 
New England temperament and character" was 
always hers Of the narrowness of the Puritan 
nature she had none, the depth and earnestness of 
that nature was her birthright, and she was na- 
tively at home in an atmosphere of plain living 
and high thinking 

Through her work for the International Kin- 
dergarten Union Miss Haven's influence was car- 
ried from Maine to Georgia, from Massachusetts 
to California, and acrosss the seas to England, 
Germany, and China In this wider service, as 

154 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

well as in the more intimate work of the training 
teacher, the strength and nobility and sincerity 
of her character carried their message 

Over Miss Haven's desk, in her office at the 
Ethical Culture School, hangs the illuminated 
card which her hands placed there, and it reads 

To keep m} health, 

To do my work, 

To live to see it grow and gain and give. 

The health of body was gone in her last years, 
but the health of mind and spirit remained until 
the end, until the end she held the controlling 
lines of her great work She lived to see it grow 
and gain and give, and we like to believe that she 
knows now that beyond the growing and gaming 
and giving that the mental eye could see, there is 
growing and gaining and giving of the spirit that 
shall pass her work on to the children of men 


IN the eastern part of Massachusetts, not far 
from the city of Worcester, surrounded by 
green trees and open country, lies the small New 
England town of Northboro The quiet of the 
street is disturbed by little traffic, and the sound 
of the builder's hammer is seldom heard Elm- 
trees, a century old, meet in an arch over the main 
thoroughfare The houses are simple and plain 
in outline, and, for the most part, are painted 
white with green blinds Near the center of the 
village, situated on the green, above the common 
level, stands the old village church, also simple 
in outline, painted white, and with a single spire, 
like a finger, pointing skyward 

Jn this village m its unpretentious, quiet at- 
mosphere and its absolutely plain surroundings 
Miss Haven was born and her body now rests 
It pleases my fancy to think that Miss Haven's 

1 Materials for this sketch were furnished by Ella C Elder 
and Mrs Mina C Hillis, supplemented by excerpts from the 
tributes paid Miss Haven at the memorial services held October 
ii, 1923, at the Ethical Culture School 

156 Pioneers of tlw Kindergarten in America 

personality and character were not unlike her na- 
tive village She, too, was simple, and plain, 
and quiet, but, like this old New England town, 
she possessed a poise, a dignit}, and a self-respect 
that impressed all who came in contact with her 
Hers was not the turbulent, emotional nature of 
the sea, nor the rugged nature of the mountains, 
but rather the smiling composure and strength of 
the green fields and the open country, and in her 
heart there was a holy place, not unlike that old 
church building, standing on the green, high 
above the common level 

Miss Haven received her training as a teacher 
in the Framingham Normal School, Massachu- 
setts After her graduation she began her teach- 
ing career in the Boston public schools She be- 
came interested in the kindergarten the new 
movement in education and joined the training- 
class of Mrs Ella Snellmg Hatch Here she 
had the benefit of lectures to kindergartners 
given at that period by Miss Elizabeth Peabody 
to the training schools in Boston Miss Peabody 
had a keen interest in the work of Mrs Hatch, 
whom she considered specially fitted to represent 
the spirit and method of Froebel 

Miss Haven's first kindergarten position was in 
Florence, Massachusetts, where she was assistant 

The Lvfe-story of Caroline T Haven 167 

in a kindergarten founded by Mr Samuel Hill, a 
wealthy manufacturer of that village Miss 
Peabody had given an address in Florence, on 
one of her evangelistic trips, and Mr Hill had 
been convinced that the kindergarten was a prime 
means of community uplift 

In 1880, Miss Haven became director of the 
kindergarten, which was a large one, employing 
several assistants She was fortunate, inasmuch 
as there were no firmly fixed traditions to over- 
come and she had the cordial confidence and co- 
operation of Mr Hill and the trustees in develop- 
ing her ideals In the days when kindergartens 
were often housed in church basements or other 
unsuitable places, the Florence kindergarten, with 
its large building designed especially for that use, 
with ample grounds, trees, shrubbery, and flower- 
garden, was unique, and attracted many visitors 
who were interested in what was still regarded as 
somewhat of an experiment in education They 
must have gone away favorably impressed with 
the pervading spirit, the happy, systematic ac- 
tivity The Florence kindergarten is still main- 
tained by Mr HilFs endowment It has blessed 
the lives of many children and has been a valu- 
able social factor in neighborhood life 

Miss Haven never did anything half-heartedly. 

158 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

She was discriminating in her choice of causes, 
but, having given her allegiance to any cause or 
the advocacy of any subject, she gave to it her 
best thought and effort To assume responsibil- 
ity was to carry it through, no matter at what 
personal sacrifice A striking illustration of this 
characteristic occurred during her last year in 
Florence Her mother died, after a very distress- 
ing illness, the day before the Christmas exer- 
cises in the kindergarten Everything was in 
readiness and one of the assistants was prepared 
to take Miss Haven's place in conducting the ex- 
ercises To the surprise of her assistants, how- 
ever, she came quietly in, and in spite of their plea 
that she spare herself so great a strain, she carried 
through the program with an equanimity and se- 
renity which touched the hearts of her co-workers 
Soon after the death of her mother, Miss Haven 
resigned her position in Florence, and in the Sep- 
tember following she took up the work in the 
Ethical Culture School, to which she devoted her- 
self, with ever-increasing ability and efficiency, to 
the end of her life "Faithful unto death" it may 
truly be said of her 

She was a pioneer in the kindergarten move- 
ment, a sincere student of all that its founder had 
evolved, yet the theory, methods, and materials of 

The Life-story of Caroline T. Haven 159 

Froebel did not blind her to the needs of the Amer- 
ican child as she studied him in his present en- 
vironment As, each morning, she sat in the 
circle, with her large and varied group of chil- 
dren, she saw what doubtless Froebel would have 
seen had he been there She dared to accept the 
truths set forth in his "Education of Man" and 
"Mother Play" and to apply them as she felt he 
would have done She was then called radical 
We now honor her as a progressive leader of her 
day Bruce Barton, in an interview with John 
R Mott, quotes the latter as defining vision thus 
"The capacity to see what others do not see, to see 
farther than they see, and to see before they see " 

Miss Haven had vision, not only in her inter- 
pretation of child-nature and application of 
Froebelian principles to kindergarten methods 
and materials, but also in her relation to her nor- 
mal students She had the wonderful gift of 
seeing m her students possibilities of which they, 
themselves, were often unconscious More than 
one of the kindergarten leaders of to-day owes 
her first impetus to the kindly and discriminating 
encouragement of this great teacher 

In all her relationships she builded on success 
Her criticisms were constructive During the 
years I knew her, in the many ultimate conversa- 

160 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

tions we had, I can recall no words of censure or 
blame ever spoken of either students, co-workers, 
or contemporary leaders It was rather her aim 
to understand truly their point of view, accept it 
as theirs, and, howe\er it might differ from her 
own, respect it and work heartily toward 
some harmonious end, looking be}ond minor 

She knew how to put first things first, both in 
the formation of her judgments and in the carry- 
ing out of the day's program, having the keenest 
sense of order as to time and place She taught 
that whatever was worth doing at all was worth 
doing well, and I can still hear the enthusiastic 
tone with which she praised this or that feature of 
a child's or student's work Such commendation 
was never fictitious, for perhaps more than any 
other outstanding characteristic in Miss Haven's 
long career as a teacher, was her unfailing sense 
of justice, upon which every student felt she could 
always depend as, also, upon her loyalty She 
kept closely in touch with her graduates and never 
spared time or trouble to be helpful 

As I look back, it seems to me that the key-note 
of her life-philosophy was sounded each morning, 
as she seated herself among the children One 
child was selected to place a gray or a yellow 

The Life-stoiy of Caroline T Haven 161 

circle on the picture calendar, and then, all to- 
gether, they slowly and reverently repeated the 
words, "Each day is a fresh beginning, each mom 
is the world made new " 

I am sure that I am one of many whose day has 
often since been steadied and cheered b} the rec- 
ollection of those words, and the optimism they 

Miss Koehler, a graduate of the class of 1895, 
paid this tribute to Miss Haven at the memorial 

From the oldest graduate to the youngest, we all pay 
loving tribute to Miss Haven, for she was a woman of 
rare ability A thorough student herself she kept 
abreast of all that was progressive It seemed to us that 
there was no subject in her own work or allied to her 
work, which she had not thoroughly investigated, and 
of which she had not made herself master This vast 
fund of knowledge she had so well tabulated and ordered 
that any part of it was ready to serve her at a moment's 
notice She so often reminded us that it was not the 
knowledge which we stuffed en masse into our minds 
that educated us, but rather that which we used in some 
way and so made it a part of ourselves 

Many a girl who entered upon the kindergarten course 
of training with the idea that it would furnish her with 
a comfortable, easy way of earning her living, came 
through that course with several new ideas taking the 
place of the old one, namely that education is a continu- 

162 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

ous struggle for mastery, that it is unmoral to rest idly 
in routine work, and that growth is as necessary to the 
teacher as to the pupil 

Miss Haven so often cautioned us against resting in 
a ready-made outline of work "Don't," she used to 
say, "defend your line of procedure by sajuig, 'Well, 
Miss Haven did so ' For in six months' time I may 
have found something better and so be doing something 
radically different" Be open-minded, investigate, 
stud}, think, then act, was the oft- repeated counsel If 
the other members of the department were here and could 
speak for themselves, many would testify with me that 
they never knew how to study until they entered Miss 
Haven's classes 

But wonderful as Miss Haven was on her academic 
side, it was her character and personality, after all, which 
influenced us most Her insistence that punctuality, per- 
severance, order, neatness, honesty in work as well as in 
word, are habits which lie at the foundation of success- 
ful work, made every member of her classes feel the 
practice of these homely virtues obligatory And how 
successfully she led us to love our work, to feel our duty, 
to be loyal to it and bring to it our very best' She 
firmly believed with the poet, 

This is my work, my blessing, not my doom 
I am the one by whom 
This work can best be done 

Miss Haven was one of the founders of the 
International Kindergarten Union, and was al- 
ways an active and loyal member She was the 

The Life-story of Caroline T Haven 163 

first corresponding secretary and served on many 
important committees, including the Committee 
of Nineteen Her calm judgment, her grasp of 
the kindergarten situation, and her open- 
mindedness contributed much to the discus- 
sions of the committee and to the value of its 

From 1899 to 1901 Miss Haven served the In- 
ternational Kindergarten Union as president. 
She was an able presiding officer and efficient or- 
ganizer of the affairs of the union Her gracious 
manner and generous consideration of varying 
points of view were important factors in bring- 
ing added harmony to the union and a stronger in- 
fluence for working together toward the common 

For twenty-eight years Miss Haven worked in 
the Ethical Culture School in New York Dur- 
ing that long period of service more than five 
hundred young women came under her influence 
and hundreds of children learned from her their 
first life lessons In speaking of this loyal serv- 
ice one of her colleagues applies to her Lowell's 
beautiful lines on Washington 

The longer on this earth we live, 

And weigh the various qualities of men 

The more we feel the high stern-featured beauty 

4 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Of plain devotedness to dutj, 

Steadfast and still, nor paid with mortal praise, 

But finding amplest recompense 

For liie's ungarlanded expense 






W Englander born and bred, whose fore- 
fathers had been leaders since Thomas Harris 
sailed with Roger Williams from England, in 
1630, and helped establish the settlement o 
Providence, Rhode Island He received his 
preparatory education at various private acade- 
mies, among them Woodstock, Connecticut, and 
Phillips Academy, Andover He entered Yale 
with the class of 1858 and mastered the course 
of study there in two years 

He had accepted the lessons of authority and 
made more or less intelligent attempts to apply 
them until his sixteenth year Then, he says 

I began to read with avidity a class of literature whose 

chief interest to me was its protest against some phase of 

authority There were geological books revising the 

current interpretation of the Book of Genesis, astrononu- 


168 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

cal books, a rising tide of books on mesmerism, 

spiritualism, socialism, and all manner of reforms I 
felt the exhilaration of the reformer, who sees the evils 
of the past and knows the true remedy 

For five >ears he pursued this path of vigorous 
protest, and then a mental reaction set in, when 
he "began to realize that the negative independ- 
ence of the spirit of protest is only a half free- 
dom and in this respect not entitled to its assump- 
tion of superiority over blind obedience to au- 
thority " He therefore began a process of con- 
structs e thinking and sought out the master 
thinkers who had led the world in that great en- 
terprise for Dr Harris knew his Greece in poe- 
try, prose, in art, and philosophy 

"The Divine Comedy," was at first to him 
"dumb show, covered with dogmatic inscrip- 
tions", but later became "the most eloquent ex- 
position of human freedom and divine grace " 
He found Dante's representations deeper than 
their allegorical form and "full of more profound 
reasoning than is contained in many treatises on 
philosophy " 

Through the Bhagavadgita, he obtained a prac- 
tical insight into the spirit of India 

Carlyle was a stimulating influence, especially 
through his "Frederick the Great " "The French 

William Toirey Hams 169 

Revolution," Dr Harris thought the greatest epic 
since Homer's "Iliad " 

An essay by Theodore Parker, on German Lit- 
erature, awakened Di Harris to the study of 
philosophy He resolved to gam a knowledge of 
Kant, Fichte, Schellmg, and Hegel "The Phi- 
losophy of History," Dr Harris declared with en- 
thusiasm, "comes nearer being a Theodicy, a 
justification of Providence, than any other work 
I know " 

When studying astronomy he constructed a 
telescope and by its aid learned the constella- 
tions and lore of the sky He learned shorthand 
with only the aid of a text-book He was a mem- 
ber of the Philharmonic Society, and played sev- 
eral musical instruments He had a vital appre- 
ciation of architecture, sculpture, painting, music, 
poetry, as well as of physics and mathematics, and 
used his knowledge for the introduction of the 
masters of the world into the school curriculum 

Dr Harris moved from Connecticut to St 
Louis about 1857 In the West, he found the 
spirit of the people to be active and constructive 

His friend Dr Snider says 

St Lotus was at this tune the centre of a very signif- 
icant Philosophic movement like that in Concord Dr, 

170 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Harris became the voice of that movement through his 
journal of Speculative Philosophy, his many essays and 
addresses, all reinforced by his winning personality As 
Superintendent of Public Schools he made an epoch in 
education not only locally but throughout the nation 
He wrought with equal power on both theoretical and 
practical lines, as is indicated by a glance at his bibli- 
ography which includes four hundred and seventy-nine 
separate titles covering all the important questions dis- 
cussed in the educational world in half a century More- 
over, he roused and kept active the community's interest 
in his work, which embraced the entire St Louis move- 
ment, including not only Philosophy, but also Art and 
Literature He held easily the cultural primacy of St 
Louis More than any other man or institution he 
dominated the intellectual character of the city His 
influence was central and radiated through the whole 

Dr Snider continues 

With Dr Harris, I was closely associated all this time 
and had my first and only personal experience of the 
colossal working power resident in one mere man I 
estimate he had at his disposal three times the labor-fund 
that I owned and he was able to summon it all in an 
emergency A dumb-bell which I could hardly lift, 

he could thrust out straight from his chest I heard a 
palmist once say to him "You ought to enter the 
prize ring I would wager that with a month's train- 
ing you could knock out Mike McCoole," an eminent 
Irish pugilist of those days 

William Torrey Harris 171 

If it is unexpected to come upon Dr Harris as 
an athlete (though he was of heroic build), it is 
none the less so to see him as a man of wrath, but 
Dr Snider had seen him when "he began to get 
white about the lips, which I knew of old to be his 
native war paint " 

In addition to degrees from various other 
American universities, Dr Harris received from 
Yale that of A M , and from Princeton that of 
LLD From France he received the honorary 
title of Officer of the Academy, from Italy that of 
Commander of the Order of St Maurice and Laz- 
arus., from the celebrated University of Jena that 
of PhD His achievements and credentials as 
thinker and leader qualified him for the task he 
set himself as upholder of education for the young 
child Miss Cynthia P Dozier, Pioneer Super- 
visor of Public Kindergartens in St Louis, says 
of Dr Harris 

His philosophic bent was of immense advantage to the 
Kindergarten movement He communicated his en- 
thusiasm and drew many friends to the Cause He was 
a gifted diplomat and never was diplomacy more se- 
verely taxed than in those initial years of the Kinder- 
garten in the Public Schools As supervisor, I had to 
make monthly reports and recommendations to the 
Teachers' Committee. Dr. Harris was always present. 

172 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

There was often a strong pull against his standards by 
men whose sole thought was to keep the support of their 
political constituency, but he upheld his points by 
masterly strokes of diplomacy There were times when 
the danger of defeat of the whole Kindergarten idea was 
imminent, and the work survived only because of the skill 
and prestige of the Superintendent 

Dr Hams had a genius for organization, was an in- 
spiring critic whose criticism gave such a vision of great 
things, of unrversals, that one was stimulated and edu- 
cated Without being unkind, he thoroughly enjoyed 
a good story of human failings, and it was well that he 
could see the comic side of what might easily have be- 
come tragic during those critical years 

What Dr Hams had done for the kindergarten 
in St Louis, he extended nationally, as Commis- 
sioner of Education in Washington Here is an 
example of his view of education 

We must study education in view of the entire life of 
man, and never forget that our work with the children is 
to fit them for manhood and womanhood It is not our 
object to prolong childhood forever, but on the other 
hand, we wish to prevent too rapid transitions from one 
stage of development to another We do not wish to 
see a hot-house system of education forcing the growth 
of our human plants for the world market 

First and foremost, the teacher has before him the 
question of branches of learning to be selected These 
must be discovered by looking at the growa men in 

William Torrey Earns 173 

civilization rather than at the child The child first 
shows what he is truly and internally when he becomes 
a grown man 

The child is the acorn The acorn reveals what it is in 
the oak only after a thousand years So man shows not 
in the cradle, but in the great world of human history 
and literature and science, what he is We do not be- 
gin therefore with child study in our school education 
But, after finding the great branches of human learn- 
ing, we must discover which of his interests are already 
on the true road toward human greatness and which 

conflict with the highest aims 

All these are matters of child study, but they all pre- 
suppose the first knowledge, namely, the knowledge of 
the doings of mature humanity 

There can be no step made in rational child study, 
without keeping in view constantly these questions 

The Kindergarten is exactly adapted to the training, 
by mild means, of the child of great directive power into 
a healthful interest in his civilization 

Other provinces of school education prepare for civili- 
zation each in its own way, and every teacher or director 
of schools needs to consider often what is civilization and 
in what way the school is serving its mterest 

Civilization, in short, should give man command of the 
earth and likewise command of the experience of the en- 
tire race 

The high civilization leads its people toward intelli- 
gence and virtue It puts under nurture the weaklings 
of society, but does not trust them with the management 
of the State 

174 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

The Kindergarten does well, when it teaches the gifts 
and occupations, for it deals with the world of means 
and instrumentalities, and helps the child to the conquest 
of nature 

It does better with the plays and games, because these 
are thoroughly humane in their nature and offer the 
child, in a symbolic form, the treasures of experience of 
the race in solving the problems of life They make 
children wise without the conceit of wisdom, and there 
is no philosophy for the young woman like that Froebel 
has put into his work "Mother Plays and Games with 
the Children" 

Thus the games, music, stones, pictures, by their ap- 
peal to feeling and imagination, lead toward Art and the 

The selected playthings are the elementary forms by 
which nature builds, transforms and multiplies its varied 
products, the typical forms back of Art These play- 
things likewise invite the child to try his own skill in 
experiment and achievement, invite to mental mastery of 
the concrete through the simple certitudes inherent in 
fundamental form and number and thus open the door of 
science, while the hand work opens a corresponding door 
to the human industries 

Intelligent conservatism is founded on appreciation of 
the treasures of past progress and the faith that these 
treasures contribute to the progress of the future 

Miss Blow's much-discussed curriculum was an 
embodiment of the spiral conception of education 
fostered by Dr. Hams It was a project having 

William Torrey Rams 175 

inward coherence and the ascending quality of 
growth By first intention and in balanced meas- 
ure it sought that nature and human effort and 
achievement should bring their salient richness to 
child-nurture It was built upon the belief that 
there are a few immutables in nature, in mind, in 
progress constants from which spring the multi- 
tudes and offer mastery over the many It be- 
lieved that these immutables are self-related in 
art, science, civilization Its faith was large that 
"great truths may enter in at lowly doors," and 
students in earlier days saw that faith substan- 
tiated, saw young children rise from their chairs 
while puzzling out and asking for harder and 
harder questions in form, size, and number chil- 
dren to whom fractions were a delight in connec- 
tion with advanced gift work, joy in mathematics 
in school life, and fantasy, design, originality in 
work with geometric forms of expanding signif- 
icance a rare beholding indeed 1 That plan, 
too, included the great festivals sentineling the 
year After the manner of wise men, it brought 
the beauty of art and the wonders of science to 
lay at the feet of the young child 

This curriculum awakened many a spirited an- 
tithesis of comment To those who advocated it, 
the attempt to round the year was something of 

176 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

warm human meaning, for they had seen the lead- 
ers in personal contact with children and been 
convinced by the antiphony between a wise and 
sympathetic grown-up and the eager little truth- 
seekers she faced 

Dr Snider had been asked by Miss Blow, at the 
close of one of his general Greek lectures, to take 
a class of advanced kindergartners in Sophocles 
An invitation followed to dine at her home the 
same evening, that the plan might be further dis- 
cussed That informal dinner was the beginning 
of an interest in kindergarten which lasted with 
Dr Snider for more than forty years He 

After this course in the Greek dramatist Sophocles, the 
stalwart Kindergartners took a far flung journey 
through the remote and difficult Greek historians, He- 
rodotus and Thucydides, a climax in classical adventure, 
as no university in the land had then attempted any 
like historical course 

And to-day Thucydides rises as the primordial 
prophet of the recent great European disaster 

The study of the Greek historians was the cul- 
mination of Greek renascence in St Louis, but, 
to quote Dr Snider further. 

William Torrey Harns 177 

My best and most enduring acquisition during these years 
I deem to be communion with a new spirit in human 
life, especially as regards education I came to know 
the Kindergartners, a unique body of people aflame with 
zeal and sacrifice for a noble cause I felt deeply their 
example and its inspiration The best of them showed 
the supernal spirit of service to an idea which trans- 
figured their lives and even their looks 

Modern missionaries they were on their own soil 
wherein I responded strongly to their unspoken but soul 
compelling appeal I, getting gray and bald, squatted 
on the floor and played with the little children, I 
crouched down into their wee narrow chairs, at their low 
tables, trying to be one of them in sport and in spirit , or 
I joined hands with them and danced round the circle, 
not merely for pleasure but for my spirit's sustentation 
It was a great new experience, my dulled life's daily re- 
newal, from the fresh fountains of first existence, bub- 
bling out of those young hearts, a baptism, which I, the 
solitary, much introverted student, sorely needed It 
helped to keep me human and more of it would not have 
hurt me 

I believe the St Louis Kindergarten spirit was at its 
highest during this its early period , the primitive purity 
of the cause had not yet been tainted by success, by fame, 
by partisan and personal ambition with its bitter antag- 
onisms I saw and felt the work when it was still small 
but all the more consecrated, in that state it engrafted 
upon my very existence, its abiding worth and its ideal 

Such was the fresh baptism of spirit which the St. 

178 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Louis group of Kindergartners gave back to me in some 
hidden response to mj instruction 

Thej brought to their calling a consecration which no 
monej, no salary, no fame could possibl} procure or pay 
for, but might destroy So deeplj was I impressed 
with their missionary spirit that I began to reconstruct 
an old Greek legend, that of Iphigema, m order to em- 
body their deed and its godlikeness in poetic form. This 
grew to be my book, "Agamemnon's Daughter " 

This sketch of Dr Harris with his circle and 
its radial influence, gives some indication of the 
atmosphere and altitude in which the St Louis 
kindergarten was born It was characterized by 
superlative leadership Its especial guide, phil- 
osopher, and friend was Miss Susan Blow, whose 
brilliant intellect, high culture, and womanly 
sympathy would have made her a person of dis- 
tinction in any community In addition to her 
native gifts, Miss Blow brought to the young 
cause the prestige of a high social position and 
the leisure which an independent fortune made 
possible It was wonderful to be audience in 
the presence of two such great thinkers as Dr 
Harris and Miss Blow, in one's own field of en- 
deavor, to listen, even from the vestibule of their 
thought, to two in whom philosophy was never 
becalmed but a very moving, living, growing 

William Torrey Hams 179 

building energy It was usually Miss Blow who 
lassoed a thought from out the horizon of a sub- 
ject and brought the catch to Dr Hams for ap- 
praisement Then he would shut his eyes for 
concentration, and measure it up for confirmation 
or rejection 

But before any conclusion was reached, the two 
minds traveled with that idea, thinking in terms 
of generations, and flashed back and forth, from 
stellar spaces, thoughts of art, literature, history, 
life, man's immortality, responsibility, destiny, 
education, religion, God f 

That the kindergarten was brought to this high 
court for repeated discussion is evidenced by the 
whole-hearted support Dr Harris gave it in its 
earliest struggling years He knew the implica- 
tions of the plan and it is in implications rather 
than applications that childhood yields its fuller 
meaning Education proceeds not alone through 
use and wont, through adaptability and social 
efficiency, but pinnacles, in the release and daring 
of man's Mount Everest, powers which emerge in 
play the child and parent of freedom 

Dr Harris's foresight, as to the merit of the 
kindergarten was justified by each of the succes- 
sive seven years in which Miss Blow freely and 
wisely tested the philosophy, in observation, prac- 

180 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

tice, and experiment The plan was lighted by 
philosophy and carried on in a scientific spirit of 
willingness to have the work confirmed or con- 
demned at the bar of practical daily testing with 

It was guided by the authority of insight not 
by the dogmas of petty officialdom It was 
weighed in the balance by fine minds able 
to discern the kinship between the valor of that 
single combat m the nursery, whereby the young 
child acquires and expends his vivid sense of per- 
sonality, and that after conflict in which the adult 
devotes his achieved personality to a combination 
with his fellows, and so upholds and advances 
man's great work of civilization 

And what of the practical outcome in the 
lives of little children ^ It is hard, with a hesi- 
tant pen, to recapture the living spirit of those 
kindergarten days Especially, though, there 
was one unique woman, a pioneer collaborator 
who should be mentioned Mrs Hubbard was 
no philosopher but an intuitive artist in her work 
with children 

She could, with lightest touch, reach the heart 
of childhood, where the transforming takes 
place in play where the child strips off his own 
little being and puts on that of bird, of butterfly, 

William Torrey Earns 181 

or of little mother While Mrs Hubbard was 
not equally successful with young women who 
were fortunate enough to be assigned to her 
kindergarten, they were in turn disarmed of self- 
consciousness by the children It was impossible, 
being young, to see little ones so convincingly 
self-changed and not, in some grown-up measure, 
recapture "those affections which are yet 

the fountain light of all our day, are yet a Mas- 
ter light of all our seeing " 

Mrs Hubbard thought naturally in parables, 
and, with the child quality of her mind, easily, 
with the touch and let-go of indirection, swung 
into the stream of symbolic play which earned 
everything before it, so free and yet so compelling 
was that parable-playing Although Mrs Hub- 
bard herself could give no verbal account of her 
influence, Miss Blow was too discerning and in- 
trepid a thinker not to realize its spiritual kinship 
with fundamental child-nature and child-nurture. 
Her face was radiant in the presence of Mrs. 
Hubbard's kindergarten children at play 

Never, I think, in any educational plan, was 
Wisdom more justified of her children No joy 
in work has yet risen to its level, no attempt 
matched the concordance between the wisdom of 
that leadership and the zeal for child-nurture 

182 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

which it e\ oked in young w omen The influence 
of those jears thre^ a Correggio light on child- 
hood, met the Madonna element in young -woman- 
hood, and opened the doors on a world made 
progressively significant and beautiful, through 
study of the humanities 

Every task of every day was a fresh delight; 
the study of the classics, which often capped the 
days after four o'clock and the weeks on Saturday 
mornings, never seemed irrelevant to the work 
with the children or remote from the life of the 
student, though alien in form, so vivid and truly 
modern were the lessons in meaning The joyful 
self-expression of symbolic play on the part of the 
children and young women was Greek in its free- 
dom It came near being a case of the "Inde- 
scribable here it is done," because a great woman- 
soul led the work upward and on 

Under the guidance of Dr Harris and of Miss 
Blow for their achievement is inseparable 
the kindergarten entered the field of education 
with high banners flying The little child was 
at the fore, a new morning of endeavor had 
dawned in the school-room, and with it a new 
zest for work with morning lives This onset, 
beginning with nurture of childhood, led, for 
young womanhood, to climbing the heights where 

William Torrey Earns 183 

fountains of living waters uprise That the mar- 
vels of education inhere in its seed forms, is 
wonderful but not incredible m an age which 
has grasped the relation between cosmos and 

No great educational reform can be wrought 
either without emotion or with emotion as the 
sole leavening factor The unique thing in the 
beginnings in St Louis was the master relation 
between the wisdom and knowledge of the 
leaders, on the one hand, and the appeal to the 
need of young womanhood and of childhood on 
the other It was a summit enterprise 

No woman, having had it, can fail in gratitude 
or forego the heritage of high personal contacts, 
when the world for her was young and her life- 
work still in the making 

They who led so dauntlessly through the early 
dangers, have gone on Miss Blow, in her fine 
tribute to Dr Harris, closes by saying when she 
saw him last before his great farewell 

The power, the grace, the beauty of eternity were 
visibly present in him and I knew less that he must soon 
die, than that already he was forever alive. 




1^ Louis, Missouri, on June 7, 1843 Her 
father, Henry Taylor Blow, went to St Louis 
from Virginia, as a lad, and graduated from the 
St Louis University with distinction He then 
began life as a clerk in the employ of Joseph 
Charless & Son, wholesale druggists Later he 
became a member of the firm, and the business 
was carried on by him and the son under the name 
of Charless and Blow. 

After leaving the drug business, in 1844, -^ r 
Blow was for many years largely interested in 
the manufacture of white lead He was active 
not only in business but also in public affairs 
He was always a leading citizen of his city and 
state, and a true patriot 

In 1861, he was appointed United States Min- 

Susan Elizabeth Blow 185 

ister to Venezula, but returned in less than a year, 
on account of our Civil War Later, he was 
elected a member of Congress, and in 1869 was 
appointed Minister to Brazil, by President 
Grant He remained m Brazil until 1871 
Upon his return to the United States he resumed 
his business activities In 1874, ne was a P" 
pointed one of the Commissioners of the District 
of Columbia, from which position he withdrew in 
1875 Mr Blow died in September, 1876 

I give this short sketch of the life and career 
of Miss Blow's father in order to make somewhat 
clear the background to her life and career She 
possessed every advantage that culture, position, 
and wealth could bestow She traveled far, and 
in many lands, and met many citizens of many 
countries These privileges enriched her life and 
opened to her experiences that comparatively few 
young persons are granted Her childhood and 
early life were spent in St Louis or in Caron- 
delet, a suburb of St Louis, where she lived in 
a home made helpful and beautiful in every way 
that culture and ample means could command, 
and set in the midst of a garden which she early 
learned to love 

Miss Blow's parents were deeply religious, and 
religion exercised the most potent influence upon 

186 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

her own life It is impossible for any one to un- 
derstand her or her work who fails to realize that 
her thought and activity, her personal and public 
life centered in her Christian faith As a young 
woman, before and for some years after she de- 
voted her time and strength so largely to the de- 
velopment of the kindergarten, she conducted a 
Sunday-school class for girls and women Those 
who enjojed the privilege of membership in this 
class would testify with one accord to the inspir- 
ing and stimulating influence she exercised In 
many cases she not merely awakened conscious- 
ness of the Christian ideal, but stirred into life 
the desire for consecration to the service of God, 
through service to humanity 

Her teaching revealed profound and searching 
study of the Bible, and clarified to herself the 
faith she hoped to kindle in others By means of 
careful study of theology and the history of re- 
ligion, she gradually became aware of the need of 
reconciling her personal interpretation of her 
faith with the teachings of her church She grad- 
ually grew conscious of limitations and contra- 
dictions of which she had been unaware 
Brought up in strict accordance with the dogmas 
and practice of Presbytenanism, and possessing 

Susan Elisabeth Blow 187 

and often tortured by a super-sensitive conscience, 
she never wholly shook off their effects 

Like many another deeply thoughtful person, 
she could not logically hold the tenets taught her 
in the years of childhood, and yet felt strongly 
the ties that bound her to her inherited faith 
Under the liberalizing influence of science and 
philosophy, and realizing the contradictions be- 
tween her conviction and the faith she had out- 
grown, Miss Blow, in middle life and after long 
questioning and intellectual wrestling, relin- 
quished her membership in the Presbyterian 
Church and was confirmed in the Episcopal 
Church In the greater freedom and larger hope 
of the latter she found peace 

In 1872, having some knowledge of kinder- 
garten methods as practised in Germany, and de- 
sirous of establishing the kindergarten in St 
Louis, Miss Blow consulted Dr William T Har- 
ris, then Superintendent of Schools, in regard to 
the possibility of conducting an experiment in 
that direction Dr Harris, ever ready to make 
way for improvement and progress in education, 
supported her suggestion, and with the approval 
of the school board agreed that after a year of 
study of the kindergarten, on the part of Miss 

188 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Blow, the experiment should be made There- 
upon, she -went to New York to take the training 
with Miss Boelte (afterward Madame Kraus- 
Boelte), and in the autumn of 1873 tne fi rst 
public kindergarten \vas established in the Des 
Peres School m Carondelet, where Miss Blow 
then resided She was assisted by Miss Mary 
Tunberlake, who had been teaching in the 
primary grade and had no knowledge of the kin- 
dergarten and therefore had to be trained in its 
theory and practice, but who possessed the 
courage and will of the pioneer The members 
of the first kindergarten training class were Miss 
Sally Shawk and Miss Cynthia P Dozier, the 
latter well known to kindergartners in St Louis 
and New York The opening of the public kin- 
dergarten was epoch-making It was the first 
great and permanent step in the establishment of 
the kindergarten as an integral part of the school 

In 1874, the training school was regularly es- 
tablished. It was largely composed of young 
women who came for the sake of the training 
Miss Blow offered, without any idea of making 
the kindergarten a permanent vocation Most of 
them, however, found great satisfaction in the 

Susan Elizabeth Blow 189 

study, and joy in its practice with the children, 
and continued in its pioneer work 

After Miss Blow took up her residence in St 
Louis, the training classes were held in the Eads 
Kindergarten, of which Mrs Clara Beeson Hub- 
bard was director Soon, graduate classes were 
added to the training school The course of 
study was naturally extended and included ad- 
vanced work in mother-play, kindergarten gifts 
and occupations, kindergarten program, songs 
and games, and great literature There was as 
yet no published translation of Froebel's "Mother 
Play, 3 ' and Miss Blow, together with one of the 
kmdergartners, translated from the German, from 
week to week, the songs and mottoes for the 
small class which met at her house The un- 
rhymed translations were then made into verse 
(such as it was') by the members, one of whom 
had a good deal of ability in that direction The 
German text was used for several years in the 
undergraduate and graduate classes, and it was 
only after Miss Jarvis's translation was published 
that the "Mother Play" songs and games were 
developed and set to other music by Mrs Hub- 
bard, who dramatized them, in large measure, by 
getting free suggestions from the children in her 

190 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

kindergarten Froebel's developing method was 
her guide, as it was Miss Blow's in other aspects 
of kindergarten practice 

The classes m literature included, successively, 
study of Greek tragedies, the Iliad, the Odyssey, 
Herodotus, Shakspere's dramas, Dante, Faust, 
the philosophy of history, and psychology Miss 
Blow conducted many of them, preparatory to 
further study with Mr Denton J Snider and 
Dr William T Harris 

Mrs Hubbard's kindergarten became the meet- 
ing-place for graduate classes on Saturday morn- 
ing from nine o'clock until twelve The classes 
were also attended by many women who were not 
kindergartners They came for the help and in- 
spiration Miss Blow's interpretation of Froebel's 
"Mother Play" gave to them as women and 
mothers, and for the uplifting power of literature 
and philosophy 

The morning was divided between kindergarten 
subjects and subjects bearing on general culture, 
but always some time was given to playing games 
and singing songs, with Mrs Hubbard as leader 
and the other kindergartners lusty and happy 
children They were, during these great years, 
the merriest and happiest group of young women 
in. the world. Neither rain nor snow, heat nor 

Susan Ehzabeth Blow 191 

cold, nor distance could keep them at home 
Street-car strikes and blizzards had no terrors, 
and nothing but the doctor's orders could enforce 
absence Advanced study for general culture 
was always emphasized by Miss Blow, because 
she knew that students, in order to be good kmder- 
gartners and good mothers, must have their intel- 
lectual horizon widened, their power strength- 
ened, their grasp on human development and uni- 
versal problems deepened, and their insight clari- 
fied Every study led back to underlying prin- 
ciples, nothing was left "hanging in the air" of 
personal feeling, opinion, or prejudice When 
anything of the sort prevailed, it was due to in- 
dividual limitations and not to careless, sketchy, 
superficial presentation 

The success of the kindergarten movement was 
not achieved easily, but was won by constant 
struggle There were obstacles of all kinds, great 
opposition from many quarters, intelligent and 
unintelligent questioning from near and far for 
there were those who came from afar to study and 
to observe Ridicule had to be borne, misrepre- 
sentation accepted where ignorance often ruled 
But the spirit that animated Miss Blow was truly 
that of the pioneer and she communicated that 
spirit to the young women who worked with her 

192 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

She was their standard-bearer They followed 
where she led, because she enlightened and in- 
spired And they were con\mced that the} were 
helpers in the transformation of the early educa- 
tion of the child from externally imposed knowl- 
edge and rules to inner development and ideals 
She often quoted personally to those in trouble 
the words of Thomas a Kempis "God sends oc- 
casions of contest to bless us with opportunities of 
victory " 

Those same words might well be applied to 
Miss Blow's unselfish service to education It is 
well known that she gave herself, her time, and 
of her means to the work in St Louis Her ra- 
diant personality, her superb vitality, her gay 
spirits made her presence felt wherever she went, 
and her steadfastness of purpose, her humility 
and generosity were unsurpassed Her tastes 
were very simple When she was young, her 
finely chiseled face, with eyes that shone like 
stars, was beautiful to look upon For herself, 
she asked only that she might do her duty to- 
ward those who were her own, and serve hu- 
manity according to her strength and power 
Hers was a life of consecration, from youth until 
the end 

In 1884 Miss Blow withdrew from the St 


Susan Elizabeth Blow 193 

Louis kindergartens, and in 1888 she removed to 
Boston, where she remained for some years For 
nearly ten long years she was handicapped by ill- 
health and was obliged to withdraw from all 
practical work Some of these were years of 
great suffering, spent in semi-solitude but never 
in idleness She was always an omnivorous 
reader and when her own eyes gave out, she was 
read to for hours daily The same broad inter- 
ests characterized these years of limited strength 
She kept thoroughly abreast of the thought of 
the times, in the newer philosophy, theology, 
science, psychology, and education, and retained 
equally intimate acquaintance with the poetry, 
drama, and fiction of the day Her patient and 
heroic spirit, cooperating with the skill and wis- 
dom of her untiring physician, Dr James Jackson 
Putnam, conquered disease and built her a new 
body To Dr William T Harris, who from 
the beginning of her work opened up a new world 
of thought and always stimulated and encour- 
aged her intellectually, and to Dr Putnam, who 
made possible the renewal of health, Miss Blow 
paid the deepest gratitude throughout her long 

This account of Miss Blow's personality is of- 
fered to the young kindergartners in the hope that 

194 Pioneers of the Kindergarten vn America 

the story of a heroic and consecrated life may en- 
courage them when difficulty assails, when hard- 
ship depresses, and when illness lays them low , 
and that they, too, may, by the help of a person 
greater always than her achievements, call into 
the service of the ideal that unconquerable will by 
which victory is won 


It is not possible to give any adequate state- 
ment of Miss Blow's contribution to kindergarten 
education That she was Froebel's greatest inter- 
preter is universally granted, and that she ex- 
panded and demonstrated his ideas in new ways is 
well known Her first book, "Symbolic Educa- 
tion," published in 1894, strikes the keynote of 
his method and gives the clue to some of his 
fundamental principles * 

In 1895 Miss Blow gave her first public lecture 
in Boston The subject of this lecture was the 
mother-play entitled "All Gone " From that 
time on, for many years, she traveled from city 
to city, east and west, lecturing and conducting 

iHcr other pubhshed books are "Letters to a Mother," 
"The Mottoes and Commentaries of Froebel's Mother Play," 
"Educational Issues in the Kindergarten," "Songs and Music 
of Froebel's Mother Play," "The Kindergarten " 

Susan Elizabeth Blow 195 

study classes on kindergarten subjects and on lit- 
erature, psychology, theology, religion, and cur- 
rent problems Her classes in literature ranged 
from the consideration of nursery rh}mes and 
tales, myths, and legends, to the study of the 
Bible, Homer, Dante, Shakspere, and Goethe's 
"Faust " The various courses given in all the 
subjects offered, constituted a liberal education 
for the women who chose to avail themselves of 
the privilege of attending them 

In her explanation of Froebel certain outstand- 
ing principles are recurrently emphasized Of 
these only a few can be touched upon and none 
fully developed here 

Froebel's chief idea, to her mind, is the Ghed- 
ganxes (member-whole) On this his philosophy 
of education rests "It is the conscious standard 
by which the goal of education may be deter- 
mined, the several educational values appraised, 
and the psychical capacities and attitudes inter- 
preted " She claims for the conception of the 
Ghedganzes that "it embodies final truth which 
may be dialectically demonstrated " By this she 
implies not that it leaves nothing new to be dis- 
covered, but that "all new discoveries will make 
explicit some of its yet undefined implications " 
"The doctrine of the Ghedganzes is a statement 

196 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

of the necessary implications of a completely 
realized thinking activity " 

To state this somewhat differently according 
to Froebel, the idea that man is a whole and also 
member of a larger whole, the realization of 
which is his goal, is the basis of the philosophy of 
education and the root and aim of educational 
method In self-activity completely realized in 
a completely self-conscious being, lies the key to 
education The individual must rise from incom- 
plete and imperfect self-activity and self-con- 
sciousness, to ever-ascending forms and degrees of 
both He must throw off the limitations which 
hamper his development and realize increasingly 
within himself that ideal, total humanity of 
which he is a member Through participation in 
the achievement of the race, he overcomes his in- 
dividual limitations and rises above his actual self 
into the realization of his ideal self To repeat, 
this completely realized self-activity or self- 
consciousness is the basis and the goal of educa- 
tion It is the explanation and the goal of the 
world in which man lives that "divine event 
towards which creation moves " 

In nature, and in the unfolding process of 
self-consciousness in humanity, lies the justifica- 
tion of Froebel's symbolism in the gifts and also 

Susan Elizabeth Blow 197 

in the songs and games of the kindergarten By 
way, first of analogy, the child in his make- 
believe play represents one object by another 
By some selected tie, the child unites the repre- 
sented with the representing object In this 
analogizing activity, Froebel grounds, and upon it 
he builds, many of his games and exercises A 
higher form of symbolism governs the plays in 
which ethical ideals are presented to the child and 
through which, by indirect suggestion, games are 
developed which emphasize and present "the ra- 
tional human type or generic spirit in which all 
individuals participate " It must be evident that 
here again the idea of the Ghedganzes is the basis 
of plays in which the child represents the ideals 
striving for realization in the relationships and 
institutions of human society, of which he is a 

A third form of symbolism in the kindergarten 
is illustrated in the presentation of typical ob- 
jects, typical deeds, typical experiences, typical 
songs, games, and stones , and, according to Miss 
Blow, most of the symbolism of the kindergarten 
takes the form of typical representation Every 
fact, as we know, is partial and defective, and in 
some ways differs from every other fact of the 
same class or kind Under them all is something 

198 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

they have in common which unites them and 
binds them into a class That which constitutes 
the connecting tie is that which is typical of all 
The typical fact is inclusive, complete It not 
only suggests one phase of an experience, one par- 
ticular object of a kind, one special individual, 
but suggests and embodies the universal behind 
the particular, the principle which the particular 
illustrates, the ideal toward which the particular 
points, the whole of which the particular is a 

To free the child, within the realm of knowl- 
edge and action which is legitimate and neces- 
sary to him as a child, from the cramping, de- 
fective and misleading influence of the limited 
and particular fact, Miss Blow contends that 
Froebel associates the particular with the typical, 
presents the typical as the inclusive ideal, and by 
gentle suggestion stimulates the child to seek 
those generative processes that lie behind all par- 
ticular facts and are the source from which they 
take their rise "Ever before them should march 
the mighty ideal," to be sought and found in ob- 
jects, deeds and experiences 

The next thought to which I would draw atten- 
tion deals with the Froebelian method and its 
connection with his idea of the Ghedganzes If 

Susan Elizabeth Blow 199 

completely realized self-activity is the goal of 
education, there must be a process through which 
incomplete self -activity realizes this goal To 
abet this process is clearly the duty of education, 
and it must govern the method of education 
Froebel calls the method, as he applies it, the 
genetic-developing method, and his general 
formula is "Do this and observe what follows 
in this particular case from thy action, and to 
what knowledge it leads thee " The first step in 
the method, then, is the deed, the second step, 
observation of the deed, the third step, to make 
clear to yourself the nature of your deed, its 
significance and consequences, its implications 
and relations Every reader of Froebel is 
familiar with his statement "To become con- 
scious is the first task in the life of the child, as it 
is the task of the whole life of man " That is, 
self -consciousness is the starting-point, the process, 
and the goal of education 

Miss Blow explained that while the starting- 
point of education is the deed, Froebel is not 
guilty of the folly of believing that it makes no 
difference what the child does, on the contrary, 
it is the aim of the kindergarten to lead the child 
to do "the kind of deeds from which educative* 
results follow", hence, children are to be edu- 

200 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

cated "through incitement of selected forms of 
self-expression " This does not mean that these 
selected forms of self-expression should be im- 
posed externally, rather, that "by indirect sug- 
gestion, by appeal to sympathy and imagination" 
the child should be incited to forms of self- 
expression that have moral and intellectual value 
Those at all familiar with Miss Blow's presenta- 
tion and application of the genetic-developing 
method, as illustrated in her outline of a kinder- 
garten program (an outline, by the way, which 
embodies suggestions not of one mind alone, nor 
of Miss Blow alone, but from many kindergart- 
ners, out of their experience and their invention) 
will remember how often she used the expression 
"expert reaction" That was the clue to the 
thought of "selected forms of self-expression" 
and governed every exercise of every kind 

Space precludes a further consideration of Miss 
Blow's exposition of Froebel The one essen- 
tially controversial book she wrote is "Educa- 
tional Issues in the Kindergarten " It must suf- 
fice merely to say in passing that she presents and 
discusses various kinds of programs, points out the 
basic ideas governing each kind, and explains 
their limitations and defects 

It is interesting to consider the related educa- 

Suscm Elisabeth Blow 201 

tional movements initiated by the kindergarten 
under her influence namely, home-visiting, 
mothers' meetings, excursions, nature work, the 
use of collateral materials, home work, gardens, 

In this very inadequate presentation, one final 
word about her cannot be left unsaid During 
the last four or five years most of her time was 
spent in New York, where she was connected 
with the Graduate Department of the New York 
Kindergarten Association Her lectures and 
classes covered a wide field of study Some of 
they subjects have been enumerated elsewhere 
To her classes the association admitted women 
freely, and hundreds of kmdergartners came u n - 
der her influence in various ways The last wri- 
ter, it was made evident that her physical strength 
was hardly equal to the great burden of work she 
had been urged to assume However, in spite of 
a struggle with great sorrow and impaired health, 
she conducted her classes with the same devotion 
and the same inspirational power that had marked 
her work through forty years Her last lecture 
was given on Monday, February 14, 1916 The 
subject was Dante's "Paradiso," and it was the 
last lecture but one that she was to give on that 
subject, m it she explained the Pnmum Mobile 

202 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Two days after, when the final lecture was due, 
she was too ill to deliver it and it had to be read 
to the class by proxy It was as if she had begun 
her own ascent to the empyrean, there in due 
course to take her place in the White Rose of 

Miss Blow's favorite secular poem was Goe- 
the's "Faust " The struggle of the intellect out 
of doubt of its own validity, its power to know 
truth, the purifying of the emotions from pas- 
sion, the conquest of sin and error and selfish- 
ness through service to the great world of which 
the individual is a member, and by means of 
which the will achieves true freedom all this 
appealed to her most powerfully She said fre- 
quently that she would rather have written the 
closing lines of "Faust" than any other secular 
poetry with which she was acquainted 

To her, Divine Grace, that attribute in the na- 
ture of God by which He in His perfection stoops 
that He may lift the imperfect into the image 
of His own perfection, that nurturing, loving at- 
titude which waits patiently and deals tenderly 
with the erring, was symbolized in the Eu>zg- 
Wezbhche) of which the closing lines sing 
Therefore, with the Chorus Mysticus, her favorite 

Suscm Elizabeth Blow 203 

lines, I close these fragmentary reminiscences of 
a great soul 

Alles Verganghche 
1st nur ein Gleichniss, 
Das Unzulanghche, 
Hier wird's Ereigmss, 
Das Unbeschreibliche, 
Hier ist es gethan, 
Das Ewig-Weibhche 
Zieht uns hinan 

[All things transitory 
But as symbols are sent* 
Earth's insufficiency 
Here grows to Event 
The Indescribable 
Here it is done 
The Woman-Soul leadeth us 
Upward and on 1 ] 



Chicago, January 18, 1841, and throughout 
her long life her heart and her activities were 
centered in that city She watched its growth 
from a little village, until she saw it become a 
mighty giant of a city sprawling over the prairie, 
and building for itself foothold where she had 
seen the waves rolling beyond sandy beaches 

Nor was it as an onlooker that she measured its 
growth From the beginning, Chicago had a nu- 
cleus in a group of people of culture whose stand- 
ards in matters of civics as in matters of taste 
were high, and who aspired to the best for the 
young city After Miss Whiting's marriage to 
Mr Joseph Robey Putnam, she and her husband 
became active members of this group 

Kindergartners think of Mrs Putnam as one 
of the pioneers in their profession She was 
known in her own city as an educator in the larg- 

Alice H Putnam 205 

est sense of the word She was a leader in the 
Chicago Woman's Club, an organization that has 
been identified with nearly every civic and social 
advance in the city She valued highly the op- 
portunity the club gave her of meeting women of 
varied interests, and of gaining an insight into 
fields of child education other than that in which 
she was engaged 

In her youth Mrs Putnam possessed a beauti- 
ful soprano voice, and throughout her long life 
she took a keen interest in the musical develop- 
ment of Chicago She was one of the ardent sup- 
porters of the Children's Classes of William L 
Tomlins, as he opened the way for more singing 
and better singing for children She followed 
the musical education of Eleanor Smith, and 
watched eagerly the installation of the Music 
School in Hull House under that gifted musician 
She secured Miss Smith for the instruction of her 
own normal kindergarten classes when, on her re- 
turn from years of study abroad, she demon- 
strated the cultivation of a great gift in compos- 
ing for and teaching children 

With the establishment of the University of 
Chicago, another source of keen intellectual pleas- 
ure was opened to her Characteristically, she at 
once sought to bring the groups of teachers and, 

206 Pioneer* of the Ktndergarten m America 

club women into contact with scholars of the 
University group How well I remember watch- 
ing her sensitive, mobile face as she listened in 
those early days to Dr John Dewey' She 
grasped instantly the educational implications of 
his psychology at that time the new psychology 
I remember her independence of thought and 
how vigorously she reacted to whatever seemed to 
her contradictory to experience Because an idea 
was new prejudiced her neither to accept nor to 
reject it 

The Chicago Kindergarten Club, founded un- 
der the leadership of Mrs Putnam and Miss 
Elizabeth Harrison, was active for years as a kind 
of "continuation school" for young graduates 
Mrs Putnam's interest in the kindergarten be- 
gan when her first child was small She had read 
of Elizabeth Peabody's work in the East, and 
eagerly sought to use Froebel's methods in the 
training of her little girl She formed a study 
group among her circle of friends and then went 
to Columbus, Ohio, to study under Mrs Ogden, 
taking her eldest child with her 

Mrs Ogden later came to Chicago to conduct 
a class in kindergarten principles and methods 
which she persuaded Mrs Putnam to continue 
when she, herself, returned to Columbus This 

Alice H. Putnam 207 

was the beginning of the training school which 
Mrs Putnam carried on from 1880 to 1910 under 
the name of The Chicago Froebel Association 
Under the stimulus of her enthusiasm a group of 
outstanding women became supporters of the As- 
sociation, being responsible for the maintenance 
of free kindergartens, at first in connection with 
church missions 

These kindergartens were naturally the practice 
ground for the young students Private kinder- 
gartens, too, sprang up, some independently, 
others in connection with the private schools In- 
terest became wide-spread Students flocked to 
the lecture room, the course expanded, other 
teachers were needed to lift some of the buiden 
of management and teaching from the shoulders 
of the founder 

Before this greater growth, and at all times, 
Mrs Putnam sought training wherever she could 
get it She spent one season with Miss Blow 
in St Louis, and another with Madame Kraus- 
Boelte in New York She had an especial admi- 
ration for the teaching art of the latter, and she 
regarded the former as one of the most brilliant 
philosophic thinkers of her day She claimed 
neither, however, exclusively as guide in her own 
practice That was not possible to a woman 

208 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

of her original thought and mature experience. 
Always on the alert, always a seeker, humble as 
a little child when in the attitude of a learner, 
she was never a copyist and could scarcely be 
called a disciple Every statement, every judg- 
ment heard, had to be passed through the alembic 
of her own reason and tested by her own experi- 
ence before she adopted it much less passed it 
on to another in the class room 

It was in one of these adventures after truth 
that she formed the lifelong friendship with 
Colonel Francis W Parker Having read of the 
"Quincy Method" and knowing that Colonel 
Parker conducted a summer school at Martha's 
Vineyard, Mrs Putnam enrolled herself, one 
summer, in that school She came away with a 
new vision of the meaning of Froebel's doctrines 
of freedom, creative work, education for and 
through social living, and in knowledge of and 
companionship with Nature She realized then 
more fully that these principles of education 
which Froebel demonstrated in the plays and ma- 
terials of the kindergarten could be the domina- 
ting principles of public school teaching for all 

When a principal was being sought for the 
Cook County Normal School (at that tune on the 

Alice H Putnam 209 

southern border of Chicago), Mrs Putnam was 
influential in the appointment of Colonel Parker 
Her family found a home in Englewood, where 
the three girls might attend the grades and high- 
school department of the normal school, and 
soon Mrs Putnam was teaching in a kindergarten 
in the building, and giving instruction in kinder- 
garten theory and practice to the regular Normal 
classes During these years many teachers and 
parents who were interested in following the 
progress of the "New Education" attended the 
normal-school faculty meetings carried on by the 
brilliant group of devoted teachers that Colonel 
Parker had drawn together Mrs Putnam will 
always be inseparably associated with this group, 
who gave to their calling such missionary zeal 
that it may truly be said that the great renais- 
sance in teaching, in the Middle West, was born 
in the old brick building, out of the heart of 
Francis W Parker 

The old school had its battles to fight with 
politicians, and with school men jealous of the 
old traditions and ready to crucify him who 
should disturb one of their revered idols In 
these battles Mrs Putnam took a firm stand 
Colonel Parker was a kind critic of the kinder- 
garten and an enthusiastic supporter of its prin- 

210 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

ciples He regarded Froebel as the greatest 
apostle of true education, and the kindergarten 
as the essential first step of a school which should 
be an outworking of its principles From his 
report of the Cook County Normal School in 
1888 we read 

The most important far-reaching educational reform of 
the nineteenth century is the kindergarten Hitherto, the 
application of the principles discovered by Froebel has 
been left to pnvate generosity Mrs Alice H Putnam, 
superintendent of the Chicago Froebel Kindergarten 
Association, has taught the principles of the kindergarten 
to successive training classes of this school, and illus- 
trated them in an excellent kindergarten, for five and a 
half years, without receiving a cent of the county's 
money Her work has been simply invaluable to the 
teachers of Cook County In twenty years the kinder- 
garten will become a part of and the essential basis of 
the common school system of this country St Louis, 
Philadelphia, and Boston have already begun this grand 
work Thousands of trained kindergartners will be 
needed It is high time to prepare for this child saving 

In 1886 Mrs Putnam relinquished actual 
teaching in the normal-school kindergarten, and 
made the writer director, saying, "I am giving 
you this kindergarten which is very dear to me " 

Alice H Putnam 211 

She visited it often, always on the days with the 
normal classes, giving kind criticism and help 

While Mrs Putnam was teaching her bi- 
weekly class at the normal school, she was con- 
tinuing full management of and doing the major 
part of the teaching in her own training school 
for kindergartners in the Chicago Froebel Kinder- 
garten Association The belief had been grow- 
ing for some time that an entering wedge must 
be made to introduce the kindergarten as a part 
of the Chicago public schools The beginning 
was made in 1886, when the first kindergarten 
was opened under the auspices of the association 
in the Brennan School in the Stockyards neigh- 
borhood Miss Elsie Payne (now Mrs Herbert 
Adams of Dubuque, Iowa), one of the graduates 
of the association, was in charge, and the writer 
was proud to be her "paid assistant " 

How intensely interested Mrs Putnam was in 
the experiment' Many times she took hours 
from her busy life to make the long trip down the 
"Archey Road" in slow street cars, in order to 
visit and advise the young teachers when, because 
of illness, Miss Payne was unable to be at her 
post of duty 

From this beginning, the superintendent of 

212 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

schools was willing to give the use of other school 
rooms where there was one not needed for 
the primary children Before long three other 
schools boasted kindergartens, in which two kin- 
dergartners were paid by the Froebel Association, 
the supervision was given by Mrs Putnam, and 
the pupil teachers from the association were fur- 
nished opportunities for supervised practice teach- 
ing From this time on, the number of kinder- 
gartens increased steadily, some being under the 
care of the Chicago Free Kindergarten Associa- 
tion, some under the Chicago Kindergarten Col- 
lege, manned by the graduates of these schools 
and under their supervision so far as the charac- 
ter of the teaching was concerned So the wedge 
was driven deeper into the school system, until in 
1899 kindergartens were admitted as an integral 
part of the Chicago public schools 

It is significant that when the kindergarten was 
making its way through misconceptions , when the 
teaching profession distrusted principles of play 
and freedom , when it was feared that these prin- 
ciples, demonstrated within the walls so long dedi- 
cated to study, might unduly soften the regime of 
the school, when some thought it was even a rev- 
olutionary force, the thinkers among the public- 
school principals were its advocates To these 

Alice H Putnam 213 

more progressive school men and women, Mrs 
Putnam's dignified personality and sound sense 
were in themselves the best arguments for the 
movement of which she was the acknowledged 
head They felt that a movement that claimed 
the devotion of a woman of her caliber, deserved 
at least a trial 

Mrs Putnam's classes were held for many 
years in the down-town district The old New 
Church Building on East Van Buren Street 
housed them for a period of years In 1894 the 
writer was assisting her m these classes and at 
the same time teaching the kindergarten at Hull 
House A new Children's House was in process 
of construction there, which was to contain ample 
space in its four stones for clubs, classes, a day 
nursery, kindergartens, and, at the top, a music 
room and a painter's studio One day Miss Jane 
Addams, after estimating the cost of operating 
and maintaining so large a building without en- 
dowment, said to me, "I wonder if Mrs Putnam 
would not use our rooms for her training classes '" 

To our great delight, this proposition met with 
Mrs Putnam's approval, and, at a considerable 
sacrifice of her own time and ease, she made the 
long and tiresome trip from her home (which was 
now in Kenwood) to the West Side. For seven 

214 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

years Hull House was the home of the training- 
school, during which time reciprocal advantages 
were enjoyed by the house and the school We 
encouraged our senior students to lead children's 
clubs or to assist in whatever way they could that 
would give them contact with the children above 
kindergarten age 

Mrs Putnam was deeply sympathetic with the 
aims of Hull House, and followed each new de- 
velopment with interest Miss Jane Addams 
wrote thus of her 

My vivid impression of Mrs Putnam, during the 
many years when I saw her almost daily, is that of 
absolute devotion to children, and of unfailing interest 
in their affairs Although at that time she had largely 
to do with the training of adults, she was unaffectedly ab- 
sorbed in what the children about her were doing and 
the line of development which their spontaneous activi- 
ties suggested She eagerly sought for information and 
"color" in regard to the background and parentage of 
our immigrant children , and she constantly insisted that, 
m the Babel of tongues and diverse nationalities which 
the Hull House neighborhood represented, the little child 
of each group afforded a normal and natural point of 
departure for the solution of the immigrant problem 
She always insisted that, though we had twenty-six na- 
tionalities in our kindergarten, all the little children were 
surprisingly like those in the other groups with which she 
came in contact 

Alice H Putnam 215 

Several years ago, when I visited Dr Montesson's 
school in Rome and saw the tall figure of the founder, 
standing absolutely absorbed in the activities of the chil- 
dren, I was instantly reminded of Mrs Putnam and 
her concentrated interest in our little neighbors in that 
early practice kindergarten 

Mrs Putnam's service in training kindergarten teach- 
ers extended over many years, but she met each new 
class of young girls with unabated enthusiasm and with 
a belief in their possibilities that was at times so un- 
shakable and tender as to be almost maternal 

Mrs Putnam's teaching was best appreciated 
by the more mature minds among her students 
Her discursive style often carried her into waters 
too deep for the younger members of her classes 
Where the elder ones followed with the profound- 
est interest, the more immature were sometimes 
out of their depth She almost invariably 
brought them all to a common meeting-ground 
with a flash of rare common sense, with some 
practical assertion that gave them all a guiding 
line to proceed along until more light came 

Running paiallel to the vein of philosophic dis- 
cursiveness was a contrasting one of great simplic- 
ity, bom of her extraordinary insight into the 
mind and heart of the little child, of her origi- 
nality in suiting means to ends, and in the large 
freedom that she gave to experimental learning 

216 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

A favorite aphorism with her was, "strength at 
the center, freedom at the circumference " She 
had the art of grounding her pupils in basic prin- 
ciples, and of giving them what Miss Blow calls 
"pattern experiences" in carrying out these prin- 
ciples This she followed by calling upon them 
to create their own forms to embody these 

It would be idle to attempt to classify Mrs 
Putnam according to any school of kindergarten 
thought or practice Her outlook on life was of 
so wide a sweep, her grasp of the meaning of 
creative and perceptional processes in individual 
growth so many-sided and elastic, that she could 
march under the banner of neither a "radical" 
nor a "conservative " She resented being classi- 
fied or bound by any tradition or cult in her pro- 
fessional life Her appreciation of Froebel's 
theory of correspondences was reinforced by that 
of Swedenborg's doctrine, but neither was held 
by her as a code by which to regulate the teach- 
ing of little children Rather, they were princi- 
ples that illuminated life, through which she saw 
the world of common things spiritualized by the 
transforming power of imagination 

In spite of her early immersion in the idealistic 
philosophy of Froebel, she was in all matters of 

Alice H Putnam 217 

method a pragmatist One of her favorite quo- 
tations from Froebel was, "Do this and see to 
what knowledge it leads thee" She used this 
saying in two situations most characteristic of 
her teaching method first, in giving a direction, 
that her pupils might be led later to review and 
analyze the steps by which any given result was 
reached, and secondly, as a mere starting-point, 
from which the children were to work out freely 
their own ends by their own means 

Her belief in the Froebelian principle of bal- 
ance was strong She felt that free play, experi- 
ment, and invention held the largest place in any 
scheme of children's education, but that to chil- 
dren were due some of the "short cuts" (as Dr. 
John Dewey termed them) to the values won by 
experience of the elders Balance a principle 
of all construction, as of all art, and no less of all 
fine living seemed to her one of the principles 
that should be illustrated to children over and 
over again, in varied forms of making and build- 
ing, in games, poetry, and dances, in order that 
the feeling for the principle might become a part 
of the individual 

She kept in her normal classes a modicum of 
the formal occupations, that her pupils might 
realize the principles of contrast and balance that 

218 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

Froebel sought to reveal to the child mind through 
the manual arts kept them when she would 
scarcely recommend their use with children 

Her belief in the principles of Froebel's method 
far exceeded her reliance on his modes of working 
them out She told her students "I could have 
a kindergarten in a meadow with a group of 
children and only the flowers, grasses, earth, and 
my two hands Let the children lead you, and 
you will not go far astray Study them, and 
let their actions serve as your guide " Such was 
the spirit with which she imbued her pupils The 
result was that she developed a resourcefulness in 
them that recommended itself to those outside this 
branch of the teaching profession 

Mrs Putnam spared no pains to secure the 
best for her classes Her eager, searchmg mind 
reached out after new ways of opening the world 
of science and art to them She pioneered in 
many fields In the early days, the theory and 
practice of the gifts and occupations, a study of 
Froebel's "Mother Play" and "The Education of 
Man," singing, and the playing of games con- 
stituted the backbone of the normal-class curric- 
ulum On this slender structure she built, broad- 
ening and strengthening her course year by year 
Drawing and color work, gymnastics, folk games, 

Alice H. Putnam 219 

stones and story-telling, psychology, history of 
education, elementary biology and nature study, 
theory and practice of elementary teaching 
these and more, always under the direction of 
masters in their respective fields, supplemented 
and enriched her curriculum 

Dr W D McClmtock says of her 

She applied to her field the power of a strong and 
ever-growing intelligence, and this at a time when her 
field was pretty well dominated by sentiment and emo- 
tionalism It is indeed difficult to think of her in any 
professional or technical aspect, she was so human, so 
active and so volitional There were in her certain child- 
like qualities one would like to say certain boyish quali- 
ties that made her at once a lovable friend and a sym- 
pathetic teacher It was because she never lost these 
that she defended so loyally the needs and rights of the 
child Her faith in life and the truth came out of her 
own fundamental mysticism, for with all her joyous 
humor and wholesome freedom from sentimentality, she 
was a mystic, a realistic mystic, deeply religious, rever- 
ent and tender, loving life and loving children, and see- 
ing in them the syllables that spell eternity 

No account of Mrs Putnam's life would be 
adequate without mention of her gracious hospi- 
tality Her home was always open to her 
friends, and her friends were many and of the 
most varied types With her we may reverse the 

220 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

line of Browning, making it read, { 'Where the 
brain lies, let the heart lie also " She drew to 
herself congenial spirits writers, artists, musi- 
cians, social workers, professional people of all 
sorts found a welcome in her home 

Hei companionship with her children and with 
their young friends was as natural and hearty as 
her more adult companionships The three 
daughters are all musicians, and with their musi- 
cal friends they made many an evening a de- 
light to their mother and her friends During 
a long period of years the Englewood house and 
later the home on Kenwood Avenue were the 
rallying-points for high-muided, merry-hearted 
groups of young people 

Mrs Putnam remained in active control of the 
training school of the Chicago Froebel Associa- 
tion until 1910, with the able assistance of Miss 
Minnie Sheldon, now Mrs Herbert Vanzwoll, of 
Chicago Her vigor of mind never diminished; 
her enthusiasm never waned, her school flour- 
ished, and its influence was at its height when 
she decided that it would be best to transfer its 
management to younger hands She therefore 
made over its good-will to The Chicago Kinder- 
garten Institute, which, under the leadership of 


' Jl 


Alice H Putnam 221 

Mrs Mary Boomer Page, had been a sister insti- 
tution of very similar aims and spirit 

At the age of sixty-seven, Mrs Putnam ac- 
ceded to the earnest plea of her children that she 
give the remaining years of her life to them She 
spent the time in the homes of her daughters, in 
New York and in Sewickley, Pennsylvania , with 
her son in New York State, and one year in 
Portland, Oregon, with the then unmarried 
daughter, Helen, who at that time was super- 
visor of art in the public schools of Portland 

Her great delight was in the two little grand- 
children, in the home of her son Her letters 
written from this home exhibit the keenest inter- 
est in their development, and her intense pleas- 
ure in the singing of her daughter-in-law 

The claim of her beloved native city was 
strong, and a few weeks before her death she was 
established m an apartment at the Hotel Plaza, 
with her daughter Helen as devoted companion. 
There she received many of her old friends, 
catching up dropped stitches in the fabric knitted 
in former days 

Nor was this her only touch with the social 
life of her colleagues In a wheeled chair she 
was able to go about, attending some of the meet- 

222 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

jugs in which she had for so long played a lead- 
er's part The Chicago Woman's Club meeting 
on the occasion of her visit became a spontaneous 
reception in her honor 3 and when she appeared 
at the Chicago Kindergarten Club, at its regular 
Saturday meeting, its orderly procedure was 
turned into an ovation She even attended lec- 
tures at the University of Chicago, listening as in- 
tently and questiomngly as always 

On January 19, 1919, Mrs Putnam passed on, 
gently, peacefully, into a world of which she was 
as sure as of any earthly morrow Her faith was 
in a continuance of work, on higher planes, and 
with clearer vision, and so we cannot say, as it is 
our wont to say of those at rest, "She sleeps " 
God grant that her faith and prayer have been 
fulfilled that she works ! 



I CAN well remember an article which appeared 
in the daily papers of Louisville, Kentucky, 
in September, 1887, announcing the opening of 
a training school for kindergarten teachers, to be 
conducted by Miss Anna E Bryan of Chicago, 
who was returning to her native city to start the 
new educational work A number of friends, 
knowing my desire to do some sort of educational 
work with young children, cut the clipping from 
the paper and wrote or called me by telephone 
At that time I did not know Miss Bryan, as she 
had been living in Chicago, where she took her 
training, received her first diploma, and won her 
first reputation as a kindergarten teacher 

Before the day passed I, with my mother, 
called upon Miss Bryan to inquire concerning 
the new type of education and the conditions for 
entrance to the school I shall never forget my 
first impression of Miss Bryan, upon that occa- 

224 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

sion Her youthful face and sparkling brown 
eyes were contradicted by a mass of waving, sil- 
very hair, dressed high in a style that made her 
look more like a little French marquise of Mane 
Antoinette's court than a schoolmistress of the 
nineteenth century Her beauty, combined with 
charm of manner, genuine sweetness of disposi- 
tion, and intellectual alertness, won hosts of 
friends not only personal but professional I 
was a young, impressionable girl, having been 
graduated the preceding June, and was on the 
lookout for some type of work which would make 
it possible for me to be associated with young 
children The kindergarten was a new move- 
ment in education and was known to me by name 
only, but the fact that it concerned itself with 
the child of pre-school age, had an appeal 

At the close of the interview with Miss Bryan, 
an invitation was given to dinner in my home, as 
no move was made in the life-work of any one 
member of the family without appealing to the 
judgment of the whole Before the end of the 
evening there was no question in the minds of all 
those who had had the opportunity of meeting 
Miss Bryan that it was going to be a rare oppor- 
tunity to place a member of tie family in her care 
and training 

An/na E Bryan 225 

Miss Bryan was born in Louisville, Kentucky, 
in July, 1857, received her education m the public 
schools of Louisville, and graduated from the lo- 
cal high school She went to Chicago to visit a 
cousin and, hearing of the new movement in kin- 
dergarten education, she entered one of the early 
classes in that city, graduating with honor She 
was immediately placed in charge of a model 
kindergarten in connection with the training 
class Her training was poor, even for that day, 
and it is difficult to account for the immediate 
ability which Miss Bryan demonstrated in the 
new field She had not had extraordinary educa- 
tional opportunity, for few young women in that 
day had the good fortune to attend college The 
originality she manifested can be accounted for 
more m terms of native ability than in terms of 
opportunity, education, or training 

One one side of the house Miss Bryan was de- 
scended from a fine Irish family, her mother, on 
the contrary, was of French descent This com- 
bination of racial strains produced a personality 
of rare charm and unusual ability From her 
father she inherited a poetic and mystic vein, 
which was immediately appealed to by the ideal- 
istic philosophy of Froebel , from her mother, the 
logical attitude of the French mind, which im- 

226 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

mediately made her question much of the tradi- 
tional work presented in the training schools of 
that day 

When she left Chicago to bring the new educa- 
tion to her native city, she had charge of a kinder- 
garten in the morning, and of a training class of 
five young women in the afternoon She was in 
a position to begin what has since been called 
"experimental work," as her training school was 
new to the public in Louisville, who knew too 
little of the traditional procedure of the kinder- 
garten to request her to conform to the historical 

In February, 1889, when she graduated her first 
class, we were immediately engaged to take charge 
of kindergartens under her supervision From 
the very beginning, not only in the training classes 
but in her supervision, she set a standard fo r 
liberty of thought that has only recently been 
paralleled in present-day education Each kin- 
dergarten was a laboratory in which the director 
was working out her individual convictions 
The day for the supervisor's visit was eagerly an- 
ticipated we gladly demonstrated for her criti- 
cism All that had preceded was exhibited to her 
and eagerly discussed the moment the children 
had started on their way homeward She gar- 

Aima E Bryan 227 

nered wisdom from each school she supervised, 
and all her experiences were turned over to the 
whole group at the following teachers' meeting, 
which was so informally conducted that it was 
more like a family discussing the problems of the 
home than a teachers' meeting 

Thus she united with us m building up not only 
a new practice but a theory growing out of prac- 
tice While very faulty, as looked at from the 
more scientific point of view of the present day, 
her method was a deliberate though unaggressive 
break with the traditional practice of that time 
As I look back and try to explain what tran- 
spired during those six remarkable years of work 
in Louisville, when the first break was made with 
Froebehan thought and practice, I find it difficult 
to analyze the processes and results It was not 
so much what Miss Bryan thought and accom- 
plished, as what she inspired every one under her 
teaching and supervision to think and accomplish 
At the time there were few opportunities offered 
kindergartners to study, and we had to struggle 
alone in our effort to improve kindergarten prac- 
tice Few educators knew or cared anything 
about the kindergarten, but under Miss Bryan's 
supervision, we got started in Louisville so that, 
when leading educators did manifest an interest, 

228 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

they found a small group of eager, open minds, 
reaching for opportunities to study and secure 

By 1891, Dr William Hailmann and Colonel 
Francis Parker had traveled to Louisville to in- 
vestigate the reports of a reconstruction of kinder- 
garten practice They gave hearty approval, en- 
couragement, and criticism, insisting that the 
changes, crude as they were, must be written up 
and the gospel spread Accordingly, Miss Bryan 
appeared on the program of the N E A meeting 
in St Paul during the summer of 1890, illustrat- 
ing her paper with practical demonstrations 
Through Colonel Parker the educational maga- 
zines of the day asked for monthly articles, with 
the result that a series was begun in 1890 and 
continued until 1893 m the "Kindergarten 
Magazine " 

In 1893, Miss Bryan asked the Louisville 
board of trustees for a year's leave of absence for 
study and travel While not acknowledging it 
at the time, she felt that the Louisville work was 
on its feet and ready to go on without her, but 
she had so won the affection and respect of her 
co-workers, her trustees, and the citizens of Louis- 
ville, that an outright resignation would not have 
been accepted At the end of her Sabbatical year 

Anna E Bryan 229 

she returned to explain the importance of spread- 
ing the new point of view As the training 
school and the work in the kindergartens in Louis- 
ville were thriving, her request to be released 
seemed reasonable 

The trustees of the Louisville Training School 
realized the wisdom of establishing more progres- 
sive training schools, and accordingly allowed her 
to return to Chicago Her resignation was ac- 
cepted with regret, and she returned to her alma 
mater to introduce the new theory and methods 
as they had been worked out in Louisville Her 
rare personality again won hosts of friends, and 
many who would not have followed a less 
magnetic leader rallied to her support in present- 
ing the new work in the great city 

At about this time Dr John Dewey, who had 
just left Ann Arbor to serve the School of Educa- 
tion in the University of Chicago, became ac- 
quainted with Miss Bryan He at once saw the 
promise in her and her work, and not only co- 
operated with her in convincing the teachers of 
Chicago of the necessity for a icconstructed kin- 
dergarten, but opened an experimental kinder- 
garten m his laboratory school, in affiliation 
with his work in the Department of Education 
In his report on the experiment, printed m 1900, 

280 Pioneers of the Kindergarten vn, America 

Dr Dewey pays tribute to Miss Bryan as a 
co-worker Unfortunately, it is almost the only 
printed record of her work Her health failed 
rapidly and she died in February, 1901, just as 
her rare work was coming to recognition She 
lived to see the results of her labor in the trans- 
formation of the kindergartens and training 
schools in Chicago and Louisville, and to-day the 
two largest and best-known university depart- 
ments of kindergarten and primary education in 
the world are directed by two of her graduates 

Miss Bryan lives in the hearts of all who are 
so fortunate as to have been trained or super- 
vised by her As Dr Dewey remarked in a re- 
cent conversation with me, "Had she lived ten 
years longer, the education of young children 
would have progressed much more rapidly " 

We who owe our start in education to her far- 
seeing wisdom and insight still look upon our 
daily work as a chance to carry forward and of- 
fer to others the opportunity and stimulus to 
growth and progress so generously bestowed on 
us in pioneer days 



A NNA OGDEN was trained under the direc- 
X-k. tion of Miss Elizabeth Peabody, and as one 
of the pioneers of kindergarten training left her 
mark upon many students who afterward did no- 
tably fine work in the kindergarten profession 
One of her graduates, Mrs Alice H Putnam, 
opened the first kindergarten training school in 
Chicago in 1876 

When Dr John Ogden was made head of a 
small Methodist normal school in Worthington, 
Ohio, Mrs Ogden carried on a kindergarten 
training-class One of her students writes 

I remember Mrs John Ogden as a little woman, wife 
of a great bearded giant whom we called "Professoi 
John" She followed faithfully the old Froebehan 
schools of work She required dozens of weaving mats, 
dozens of cards of fine "pricking" and many other simi- 
lar things that were then considered a necessary part of 
the training for kindergarten Compared with the broad 
courses given in these days, the training of a student in 
1874 seems meager indeed With the small number in 

232 Pioneers of the Kindergarten tn America 

her classes and the opportunity for individual contact, 
Mrs Ogden succeeded in arousing a fine spirit of en- 
thusiasm I am sure we each and all felt the influence 
of her sincere and earnest effort to aid us in catching the 
vision of Froebel 

About 1894, Dr and Mrs Ogden removed to 
Minneapolis, took an old-fashioned house with a 
large garden, and opened a kindergarten and 
training class Across the front of the house 
there stretched a sign, "The Elizabeth Peabody 
Kindergarten " Mrs Ogden's daughter, Mary 
Ogden Larimer, assisted her mother m the kinder- 
garten most ably, she was a young woman of 
great artistic ability, broad culture, and keen vi- 
sion In 1900, Dr and Mrs Ogden became 
members of the faculty of the Minneapolis Kin- 
dergarten Association Normal School, of which 
Miss Stella Wood was principal Dr Ogden 
taught classes in nature study, Mrs Ogden with 
great skill and infinite pains, carried on the 
classes in history of education The Ogdens 
brought with them the small group of young 
women taking the training with them at the time 
The connection continued for one year, although 
the Ogdens carried on their kindergarten con- 
siderably longer. 
At the earnest request of their children, Dr, 

Anna Odgen 233 

and Mrs Ogden removed to Seattle, Washington, 
where a few years later Mrs Ogden died, and 
the death of Dr Ogden followed soon after 

Mrs Ogden was a sincere and devoted worker 
in the kindergarten cause, in the pioneer days 
when workers were few She was earnest, de- 
voted, sincere, and brought out the best in those 
closely connected with her Her ideals were 
high, her ability notable, and her work always 
permeated by a fine spirit of honor which im- 
pressed her students. 



bom in Medina, Ohio, July i, 1838 Her 
only memory of her mother was of her death, 
which occurred when Lucretia was three years old 
For ten years she was guided by the sympathetic 
counsel of a wise and loving father, but he, too, 
was taken After her father's death, Lucretia 
and her brother made their home in Troy, New 
York, with their uncle John Willard, who was at 
that time head-master of the Troy Female Semi- 
nary Madame Emma Willard, Lucretia's 
grandmother and the founder of the institution, 
also was living at the seminary at that time, and 
Lucretia's life there, in the intimate and affec- 
tionate companionship of this cultured woman, 
was colored by beautiful and wholesome experi- 
ences The only sad note in the melody of her 
life at Troy was the death of her beloved brother 
at the early age of nineteen. 

Mrs Lucretia Wtllard Treat 235 

Following her graduation from Troy Seminary 
on June 30, 1858, Miss Willard taught history 
and literature at Jackson, Mississippi Later, 
she accepted a position in the Terre Haute Fe- 
male Seminary, which she held until her marriage 
to Mr Hobart P Treat, September 8, 1863 

The greater part of her married life was spent 
in the South and in St Louis, Missouri The 
loss of her own children led Mrs Treat to work 
for other little ones, and she found in the kinder- 
garten the life of service for the children of 

Mrs Treat was graduated from the St Louis 
Public School Kindergarten Department October 
14, 1879, anc ^ immediately was placed in charge 
of a public kindergarten With characteristic 
purpose and earnestness she accepted any position 
in which she could be of service, regardless of 
remuneration, and later, when she was dependent 
entirely upon her own resources, she retained her 
kindergarten position in preference to a proffered 
government position which offered a much higher 
salary Her explanation of her decision was, 
"I cannot afford, at any price, to spend my days 
counting stamps when I may be living with little 
children and working for human souls " 

For six years Mrs. Treat remained in the kin- 

236 Pioneers of the Kindergarten tn America 

dergartens of St Louis, under the direction of 
Miss Susan E Blow She is especially remem- 
bered by her co-workers of this period as the direc- 
tor of the Bates Public School Kindergarten, 
where one hundred and fifty children were daily 
under her care and supervision Children from 
homes of little care and children from no homes 
at all found in this kindergarten the motherly 
love and sympathetic understanding so much 
needed and so lacking m their little lives 

For some time after she left St Louis, Mrs 
Treat was engaged in work in Chicago, in the 
private school of her cousin, Miss Virginia Sayre 
Later, she became director of the kindergarten 
department of the Lonng School, and was also 
associated with Miss Elizabeth Harrison, in the 
establishment of the Chicago Kindergarten Col- 
lege She devoted six years of her time and ef- 
fort to work in that institution, during which time 
she endeared herself to many students 

It was during this period that she formed a 
lasting friendship with the Misses Hofer of Chi- 
cago The personal influence of her life and the 
spirit of her deep interest in young womanhood 
are well expressed in the following tribute, writ- 
ten by Miss Amalie Hofer, in 1904* 

Mrs Lucretia Willard Treat 237 

Her generous good will and faith in any sincere proj- 
ect which might spring from the hearts of young women, 
was a great inspiration to us To her we were always 
"the girls " During the past ten years, the group of 
those who are called "her girls" has expanded and in- 
creased, there are enough of us to join hands across the 
continent Mrs Treat embodied consistently the high 
humanitarian spirit of which Froebel has written so 
much, and many of us who have never met face to 
face were warm friends through the fellowships which 
she extended to us 

In the summer of 1891 Mrs Treat directed a 
course of study for teachers and a kindergarten for 
children at Grand Rapids, Michigan, under the 
auspices of the Grand Rapids Kindergarten As- 
sociation So great was the interest aroused and 
so vital the service rendered that in September, 
the association proposed to Mrs Treat the estab- 
lishment of a kindergarten training school, a pri- 
vate kindergarten, a lecture class for teachers, and 
mothers' study courses for all interested in kin- 
dergarten principles and methods in the home 
The offer was accepted, and, from 1891 until the 
close of her life m 1909, Mrs Treat was con- 
nected with the Grand Rapids Kindergarten 
Training School, as principal of the school, in- 
structor m various classes for teachers, supervisor 

238 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

of private and mission kindergartens, and leader 
of the Froebel Mothers' Child Study Club Stu- 
dents from north, south, east, and west studied 
under her instruction, and the rare privilege of 
coming into close touch with her inspiring, noble 
life was an uplift to the young womanhood gath- 
ered about her 

Through the generosity of the Grand Rapids 
Kindergarten Training School in granting time 
for public service, Mrs Treat was shared with 
many other schools of kindergarten training She 
assisted in the establishment of the kindergarten 
department of the Missionary Training School of 
Albany, New York, the Kindergarten Training 
School of Columbus, Ohio, and others in which 
her graduates were teachers For twelve years 
a part of each summer was spent in the direction 
of the kindergarten department of the Summer 
Assembly at Bay View, Michigan From all 
parts of the United States came calls for lectures 
at educational institutions, and to all of these 
she responded readily and happily In the words 
of Mr William H Elson, Superintendent of 
Public Schools at that time 

Mrs Treat's life was a benediction to all among 
whom she lived and moved, ... To help to better think- 

Mrs Lucretia Wdlard Treat 239 

ing, to better feeling, and to better living to the realiza- 
tion of one's highest and best self this was the keynote 
of her life 

In the Kent County Juvenile Home, an institu- 
tion devoted to the care of dependent and neg- 
lected children, there is a memorial window, the 
subject of which is the Sistme Madonna, and 
which bears this inscription "In honor of Lu- 
cretia Willard Treat " 

Mrs Treat's love, devotion, and self-sacrifice in 
the interest of child-training, for the higher de- 
velopment of the spirit of true motherhood in the 
lives of young women, and for the promotion of 
right education in home and school, are ever pres- 
ent in the memory of all who came under her 


A |~\HE subject of this sketch, a frail little girl 
A with a warm heart and a keen mind, early 
demonstrated that she was to become an influence 
in the lives of those with whom she came in 

Josephine Jarvis's indomitable will overcame 
many difficulties and became a wonderful in- 
fluence in the community in which she lived as 
evidenced by the following tribute from a prom- 
inent citizen in her childhood home This 
friend writes that he had known her since his 
childhood, and that after the death of her brother 
Miss Jarvis lived with his family He says 

We loved her very much It was due to her skill in 
nursing and to her incomparable understanding of the 
child make-up that I am to-day walking the earth instead 
of being part of its dust, so you will understand that 
anything that I can do in memory of her, I would consider 
small indeed 

Her desire for study, during the long years of 

Josephine Jartns 2-il 

close application to the call of duty in her own 
home, prevented Josephine Jarvis from taking an 
active interest in outside public affairs But dur- 
ing these years she was laying the foundation for 
her literary career Her love for and understand- 
ing of childhood, added to her proficiency in lan- 
guages, enabled her to make her special contribu- 
tion to the kindergarten cause as a translator of 
Froebelian literature 

She came to Chicago late in the seventies, to 
familiarize herself with the practical application 
of Froebel's methods Here she organized a class 
of eager students and began to translate Froebel's 
writings which up to that time had not been 

Miss Jarvis brought out first her translation of 
Froebel's "Education of Man " Her second 
book, "Mother Play and Nursery Songs," was 
published in 1878 In the American Preface to 
this book Miss Elizabeth P Peabody writes 

This book, unique in the world's literature, is brought 
out in America in answer to a wide demand of American 
mothers Froebel was born in Germany, but he was 
truly cosmopolitan in spirit, and recognized that in 
America, where the nations have come together at last 
to understand one another, instead of meeting, as 
hitherto, to prey upon each other, the self-activity of 

242 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

universal childhood can best be cultivated for self-direc- 
tion and self-government, inasmuch as the first word of 
our nationality was, is, and ever shall be, "all men are 
created free and equal " 

Some persons have foolishly suggested that there 
must be a difference between an American and a German 
Kindergarten But the kindergarten, true to the one na- 
ture of childhood, is irrespective of all local circum- 
stances Generosity, self-respect, courtesy and reverence, 
spontaneous geometry, rhythmical motion, music, and 
plastic art, are universal as humanity, and it is these 
which make the kindergarten one and the same in all 
countries Besides, so far as this book is redolent of 
the subjectivity of German life, it is a salutary contrast 
to the extreme objectivity of the American life, and the 
connection of opposites is the law of the complete, well- 
balanced life, that we are in pursuit of for our children 
and ourselves 

Thef preface to the second German edition is 
also printed in this volume Dr Wichard Lange 
says in this preface 

The book before us is not a complete mode of educa- 
tion, not a formal system of early lessons for children, 
but it is a moral whole, woven and held together by one 
prevailing fundamental Idea, and impressing wonder- 
fully all those who are open to its influence, a whole 
which arouses all dormant inclinations for good left by 
a healthy education, a whole which awakens those pur- 

Josephine Jartns 24*3 

poses, thoughts, and resolutions which lead to salvation 
of heart, a whole which points out the way the mother 
must follow, if she would solve her practical problems 
irrespective of the criticism of a noisy material world 
With this spirit, and from this standpoint, the mother 
will make her influence sensibly felt For love only 
is the motive power and effectual working-lever in 

May every mother, therefore, avail herself of this book 
as a partner in her labors, and receive it joyfully as 
a treasure for her family ' 

In 1895 D Appleton and Company published 
Miss Jarvis's translation of "Pedagogics of the 
Kindergarten, or Froebel's Ideas Concerning the 
Play and Playthings of the Child " 

This book was issued in the International Edu- 
cation Series with a preface by Dr William T 
Harris, who says of it 

The chief value of the present volume is to be found 
in the thorough-going discussion of the first five gifts 
Froebel found an educational value in every phase of 
the child's play and in every object that engages his at- 
tention He finds all that the child does significant and 
of educational importance In fact he is the great pio- 
neer founder of child study as well as of the pedagogic 
theory of intellectual values. 

244 Pioneers of the Kindergarten tn America 

The last work of Miss Jarvis was the transla- 
tion of the second part of the Pedagogics 
"Education by Development " 

Miss Jarvis was an indefatigable worker and 
an ardent disciple of Froebel She was a famil- 
iar figure at the meetings of the International 
Kindergarten Union and a loyal member of that 
body, faithful to the end The kindergarten 
world owes her a debt of gratitude for her service 
in rendering into English the works of Froebel at 
a period when the kindergarten was new in the 
United States and the desire for first-hand knowl- 
ege of its methods and spirit was keen 

She was first in the field and deserves her place 
among those who established the kindergarten in 
America Her life of service was quiet and un- 
assuming, but its influence is not forgotten 



generally acknowledged one of the 
most advanced and practical educators in the 
United States 

As an author land a translator of valuable works on 
education, as a teacher, and as an educational administra- 
tor he made a distinct impression on the educational 
thought and practice of his day, and contributed much of 
permanent value Energetic, idealistic, hopeful, sweet- 
spirited, it was a privilege to come in contact with him 
and rare good fortune to have his friendship 

This tribute from Dr P P Claxton, former Com- 
missioner of Education, expresses the judgment 
of all who study the life of this friend of the 

Although Dr Hailmann was at first associated 
only with the teaching of adults, he soon realized 
the importance of an individual's early years. 

246 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

This led him to include the very young child in 
his scheme of education G Stanley Hall says 

Dr Hailmann knew the details of kindergarten work, 
and its development in this country owes him, I think, a 
far greater debt than any other man I wish we might 
have an intimate biography of him, for I think his life 
in Switzerland and in this country could have lessons all 
its own for us 

It is to be deeply regretted that detailed experi- 
ences of a life so rich in associations and so full of 
accomplishments could not have been personally 
related A plan for an autobiography was evi- 
dently in his thoughts, for among his manuscripts 
was found a short sketch of his early life, the 
facts revealed in this sketch are so significant for 
those of us who believe in the influence of the 
early environment that the following passages are 
quoted entire 

I was born at Glans, a noted industrial city m the 
central part of Switzerland A few months later, my 
father, a designer for cotton print-goods, accepted a 
lucrative offer from a large factory at Islikon, in the 
canton of Thurgau Here, in a beautiful rural environ- 
ment, I spent the first years of my life The only child 
of the family, I was the chief care of my devoted mother 
and a fond grandmother My father, although of kindly 
disposition, was so constantly absorbed in his work that 

William Nicholas Hailmann 247 

we had little opportunity of becoming familiarly ac- 
quainted with each other 

On the other hand, my mother, a convinced admirer of 
Pestalozzi, was ever deeply solicitous of my develop- 
ment and of my environment In favorable weather I 
spent most of my time out-of-doors, in our ample garden, 
at the side of the small brook on the banks of which 
our home was built later on, with some favored neigh- 
boring children Often I was encouraged to pass an hour 
in a near-by flour-mill, or in the carpenter's shop, or 
shoe-shop, where I learned much by doing The car- 
penter, a kindly man, taught me to do many things with 
his scraps that gave me much delight, or I accompanied 
a neighbor to the vineyards or fields that decked the hills 
a few furlongs from our home 

Inclement weather found me in my own play-room in 
the upper story of the house, busy with picture-books and, 
later on, with drawing and writing material, with build- 
ing blocks and a beloved tool-chest Here, too, I learned 
to read and write, to sing and "compose" songs with 
occasional help from my mother or a trusted older com- 

My mother often joined me in my plav-room Un- 
ostentatiously, she took an interest in my work Fre- 
quently I brought one of my picture-books to her with 
questions, among which the "what is this 2" prevailed 
In answering she would first slowly pass her finger along 
a row of marks placed under the picture and of no mean- 
ing to me This gradually aroused my curiosity and 
when I was told that these marks held the answer to 
ray questions I grew eager to read their meaning myself. 

24>8 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

Then came a delightful period when with the help of 
the picture-books, letter-blocks and slate, I learned in 
a short period to read and write these labels and, in a 
few months, even short stones in children's books A 
new world was opened to me, so attractive that I fre- 
quently sought my play-room even in fine weather 
This infatuation was eventually reduced to normal lim- 
its, however, by walks with my mother in which she 
led my interest to the observation of flowering plants 
and butterflies and to drawing and coloring on that 

When I reached the age of six years, the time had 
come for me to go to school My first experience was 
far from encouraging An older boy had volunteered to 
take me to school We arrived shortly before opening 
and I took temporarily a seat next to my friend who be- 
gan, possibly in order to keep me quiet, to draw pictures 
for me on his slate A sketch of a crying baby in a 
cradle amused me greatly, and I, not aware of the rules 
of the school or forgetful of my solemn environment, 
burst into a laugh The master's eyes were at once fixed 
upon me and in a harsh voice he ordered me to come to 
him I obeyed promptly, fearing no evil He asked for 
my name, assured himself that I was the guilty one, 
ordered me to hold out my hand, and dealt me a smart 
blow upon the outstretched hand, instead of the cordial 
greeting I had expected I abruptly withdrew my hand, 
ran to the door and, without stopping for my belongings, 
rushed out of the room as fast as my feet could carry 
me to my home 

This proved to be the end of my first school enterprise 

William Ntcholas Hailmann 249 

My mother resumed the task of teaching me until a few 
months later when a new teacher had come to the village 
school, a friend of our family and a convinced follower 
of Pestalozzi, and a kindly nature He examined us 
closely and placed us in varying groups in the different 
subjects, and he soon had a busy school throughout 
eager in their work With special joy I greeted my 
elevation into a French group, m which language I owed 
some instruction to my father 

In less than two years, it was decided to promote me 
to a secondary school, located at Frauenfeld, the capital 
of the canton, three miles east of Islikon Here I found 
myself in a distant corner of a room that held forty or 
more girls and boys of varying ages taught by the "rec- 
tor " Our work consisted of memorizing and reciting les- 
sons from books and occasional written exercises This 
work occupied very short periods and left us frequently 
with nothing to do, affording us much leisure for mis- 
chief My neighbor in the common desk had been fa- 
vored on the occasion of his birthday with a new pocket- 
knife , and in an idle period conceived the idea of testing 
its qualities on the desk He was ingenious and success- 
ful and I, too, yielded to the temptation of following his 
example In my artistic eagerness I forgot caution, and 
the "rector" stood before me With words of anger he 
had aroused me to a sense of my danger and there began 
his efforts to chastise me on the spot with his ever ready 
ruler But ensconced in my corner, I avoided his blows 
At last, he lifted me bodily out of my seat, pushed and 
carried me to the door, deposited me outside and ordered 
me to go home and not to return, unless he sent for me. 

250 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

My home journey was a protracted torment As I pic- 
tured to myself my mother's grief, tears came I be- 
came convinced that I was a thoroughly bad boy With 
this confession, when I had reached home, I buried my 
face m my mother's lap and gave her in halting words an 
account of my disgrace Calmly, yet with grief in her 
voice, she said she would speak with my father and they 
would look into the matter This she did on the follow- 
ing day and also consulted my former primary teacher 
The latter informed her that a friend of his, a superior 
teacher, had opened a private school, and strongly rec- 
ommended that I be sent there after apology to the 
"rector " 

The new school was located in a quiet suburb of 
Frauenf eld There were six of us and the teacher named 
Himmel This name signifies "heaven," and fully did he 
justify this name in his life with us He was the kind 
and resourceful friend of each one of us In every di- 
rection, at school and on our excursions, he stirred and 
respected individual and social interest, led us to serious 
research work in experiment and in reading with the help 
of his small but ample library Every fresh knowledge 
led to new doing, imitative, manual, experimental, ar- 
tistic, dramatic, etc At every point we felt that we 
amounted to something worthy of respect 

After a lapse of two years, Mr Himmel accepted the 
position of teacher of the high school at Buehler, a small 
industrial village in the canton of Appenzell Loth to 
lose our teacher-friend, four of us prevailed upon our 
parents to let us go with him as members of his family 
and of his school. Then began two years of delightful 

William Nicholas Hailmann 251 

life in wider and even more stimulating association and 

In 1849, at thirteen years of age, I was deemed suffi- 
ciently advanced in my studies to enter the polytechnic 
divison of the Cantonal College at Zurich This school 
was to me at first an immense complex of specialized 
subjects, each taught by a special fountain of informa- 
tion on his subject, with little apparent interest in the 
learners This isolating impression, however, was sub- 
sequently modified as I progressed in my studies I 
had chosen for my chief pursuit the modern languages, 
natural history, physics, chemistry and, with a private 
tutor, Latin and a little Greek My deep interest in the 
nature studies brought to me in time the special good 
will of the teachers of physics and chemistry and pro- 
cured for me the privilege of invitations on their part 
to assist in their laboratories, a distinction I valued 

Among salutary influences that came to me, I cannot 
refrain to mention a club of some twenty students from 
different classes Its aim was self -culture and in various 
forms Papers) on a variety of subjects were read and 
discussed, week-end excursions to points of historic or 
other local interest were undertaken, song-practice, serious 
and humorous readings and dramatizations cheered and 
challenged our interest and shielded us against the snares 
and pitfalls of less innocent and at the same time ill- 
guarded "student-life " . . 

Three years later (1852) William Hailmann 
came to America Being a well-trained linguist, 

Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

he was not long in securing a position as teacher 
of modern languages, first in Henry College and 
later in the high school of Louisville, Kentucky 
His tastes, however, were distinctly scientific, and 
they led him into the Department of Natural 
Sciences in the same school, where he taught for 
seven years (1857-64) His work, from the 
first, was characterized by the most modem 
methods and was received with enthusiasm 

Because of the prevailing memory methods 
among high-school students, however, he found 
himself constantly hampered The fact led him 
to an investigation of the elementary schools 
He felt convinced at this early period that radical 
changes in teaching methods were necessary, and 
that the beginning years were those of supreme 
importance He began to collect definite data 
with which to formulate a philosophy of educa- 
tion Through lecturing and publicity in the 
papers and magazines, a wide-spread interest was 
created and cooperation received from various 

In 1860, at the age of twenty-four, Dr Hail- 
mann visited his old home in Zurich, Switzerland 
Here he made investigations of the schools and 
gained much valuable data 

His first interest in the kindergarten was en- 

William Nicholas Hailmann 253 

gendered at this tune, he visited several and felt 
giatified at what he found New ideals were re- 
vealed and he responded immediately to the in- 
spiration of the Froebel message On his return 
to America the Civil War interrupted for a time 
his educational work The illness of his wife, 
however, necessitated his early resignation from 
the army, and he resumed his high-school work 
The following incident is related of him illus- 
trating his adherence to principle a habit typi- 
cal of him throughout his entire life 

Dissatisfaction arose among high school teachers be- 
cause of the low salaries , they petitioned for an increase 
solemnly promising each other to resign were the request 
refused It was refused, and Dr Hailmann was the 
only member of the group who resigned 

The incident did not interrupt his activity as 
a teacher, however, for immediately he was called 
to a position in the German-American Academy 
of Louisville One of his early movements here 
was to establish relations with the patrons of 
the school similar to the organization known in 
these days as the Parent-Teacher Association In 
1864 the idea was an entirely new one and indica- 
tive of the f ar-reachmg vision which always char- 
acterized Dr Hailmann and his work 

254 Pioneers of the Kindergarten vn, America 

For eighteen years Dr Hailmann was the head 
of this and two other similar institutions Dur- 
ing that period he had the opportunity to try out 
the Pestalozzi-Froebel principles, which he had 
observed and studied with the open mind of the 
scientist It was in Louisville (in 1865) that he 
became a pioneer in the kindergarten field, when 
he established a department for little children 
and placed a trained kmdergartner from Balti- 
more in charge The venture was successful be- 
yond all expectations, and Dr Hailmann was 
convinced that the kindergarten was the logical 
basis of the educational scheme 

In 1857 Dr Hailmann had married Eudora 
Lucas Mrs Hailmann now became a deeply in- 
terested student of the kindergarten and mate- 
rially assisted her husband in promoting it. 
Twice she went abroad, in 1866 and again in 
1871, to study the kindergartens in Switzerland 
and Germany Her enthusiasm and practical 
knowledge enabled her to become an active leader 
in the kindergarten field 

While Dr Hailmann was still in Louisville, 
the National Education Association had its first 
meeting (1872) in Boston At this first session 
Dr Hailmann presented a paper on "Adaptation 
of Froebel's Method to American Institutions." 

William Nicholas Hailmam 255 

The paper created a great interest among educa- 
tors and led to further investigation of the kinder- 
garten system 

After ten years of progressive work in Louis- 
ville, Dr Hailmann became head of the German- 
American Academy in Milwaukee, Wisconsin 
Here he made a notable advance, not only a kin- 
dergarten was established, but kindergarten tram- 
ing classes also The work was given in English 
as well as in German, thus strengthening the 
kindergarten idea among the English-speaking 
people of the city and state 

It is evident from the following letter written 
by the superintendent of the Milwaukee City 
Schools how wide an interest was felt in this for- 
ward movement The letter is dated February 
13, 1873, and reads as follows 

It affords me great satisfaction to learn that Professor 
Hailmann, Principal of the German and English Aca- 
demy, is making arrangements for opening a Kindergar- 
ten in this city, adapted to the wants of the English 
speaking portion of the Community German Kinder- 
gartens have been in operation for some time in different 
sections of the city, but no school of this kind has yet 
been furnished, in which children of American parentage 
could receive instruction Professor Hailmann's enter- 
prise should be welcomed by all who are interested in 
the advancement of more rational and correct methods 

256 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

of infant education than have hitherto obtained in this 
country I earnestly hope it may meet with the en- 
couragement it deserves, and that the day is not far 
distant when we shall have a Kindergarten department 
in every large Public School in the city I take great 
pleasure in commending Professor Hailmann to the Amer- 
ican portion of our population as a man in every way 
fitted to have the direction of such an undertaking He 
is the author of an admirable Manual of Kindergarten 
Culture, and has had large experience with schools of 
this character Professor Hailmann appreciates the im- 
portance of adapting the Kindergarten, as it has been 
elaborated in Germany, to American life and institutions, 
and I have no doubt will place within the reach of the 
Milwaukee public, a school equal to the best of its kind 
in this country 

Superintendent Public Schools 

Dr and Mrs Hailmann moved to Detroit in 
1879 Here they established more training 
classes, and Mrs Hailmann opened the first 
English-speaking kindergarten classes in the city 
Others followed under the auspices of the Free 
Kindergarten Association 

It was at this time that Mrs Hailmann de- 
vised the second gift beads She had previously 
worked out the social sand-table, the doll-house, 
a group table, and some enlarged forms of build- 
ing gifts, used under her direction for social work 

William Nicholas Hailmann 257 

In 1883, Dr Hailmann was again called to 
the public schools as superintendent, in Laporte, 
Indiana Here a constructive piece of educa- 
tional work was done by both Dr and Mrs Hail- 
mann In the eleven years of Dr Hailmann's 
administration the Laporte School System at- 
tained a national reputation for progressive re- 
forms Kindergartens were established in the 
public schools under his direction, kindergarten 
principles permeated the grades, manual training 
was introduced in the elementary and high 
schools, art work developed along rational lines 
never before conceived 

In line with her husband's forward move, Mrs 
Hailmann also was active in promoting the kin- 
dergarten ideas She established and maintained 
in Laporte (1885-94) a training school for 
kmdergartners , aided her husband in securing the 
establishment of kindergartens in the public 
schools, prepared, with the assistance of her 
daughter, "Songs and Games for Nursery, Kin- 
dergarten and School", organized the first and 
very remarkable kindergarten exhibit for the 
meeting of the National Education Association 
at Madison, Wisconsin The exhibit attracted 
much attention and was the means of securing in 
1884 a kindergarten section of the National Edu- 

258 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

cation Association The kindergarten was thus 
brought to the attention of educators and given 
a deserved prominence Dr Hailmann was 
elected president of this first section 

During those early days in Laporte, Dr and 
Mrs Hailmann, in their zeal for the kindergar- 
ten, used every means for its advancement 
They established a summer school (an innovation 
at that time) to which teachers came from all 
parts of the country to be instructed in kinder- 
garten methods 

In 1894, Dr Hailmann was appointed to the 
Government Indian School at Washington, where 
he remained four years It is a generally ac- 
cepted fact that the Indian School advanced more 
under his administration than at any other time 
in its history One year after his appointment 
the kindergarten became an integral part of In- 
dian education In 1897, the "Kindergarten Re- 
view" made the following statement 

In the Government Indian School four years ago there 
was not a single kindergarten , now there are over forty, 
and the primary work is thoroughly vitalized with the 
spirit of Froebel A quotation from the Government 
Indian School newspaper (1912) indicates the students' 
regard for their leader "Dr Hailmann brought to his 

Wdham Nicholas Hatlmann 

work ripe experience and great success as an educator, 
and made a deep impression on the Service As long 
as the Indian work continues, Dr Hailmann will be re- 
membered by Indian workers for his efficiency, loyalty 
to lofty ideals, expertness as an educator, and the noble 
spirit of service which actuated him " 

Mrs Hailmann had accompanied her husband 
to Washington and resumed her training-class 
work In 1897, however, she suffered an attack 
of nervous prostration which led to her death in 
1905 In cooperation with her husband she had 
given thirty years of loyal service to the kinder- 
garten and through her efforts much had been 

From his position with the Government, Dr 
Hailmann went to Dayton, Ohio, where he re- 
mained for five years as Superintendent of Schools 
(1898-1903) Here he continued his ever- 
progressive endeavors for the advancement of 
education, from kindergarten through high 
school When, m 1903, Dr Hailmann felt it 
necessary to resign, profound regret was felt by 
the entire school body and the citizens who ap- 
preciated the strength of his character and the 
quality of his leadership From the many letters 
received by him at the time a quotation from one 

260 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

written by the principal of the normal school 
gives an idea of the appreciation of the teachers 
of Dayton 

I count my years of association with Dr Hailmann as 
the great gift given me by the Giver of all good gifts 
His devotion to all the children, his sympathy and belief 
in them, his consciousness of the power of good, his 
grasp of spiritual law, his patience and self-effacement, 
his beautiful professional spirit, his devoted, joyous ad- 
herence to the ideal, all impressed and stimulated me 

Dr Hailmann was often spoken of as an idealist. 
However, his grasp of practical details, his knowledge of 
how to express the ideal in terms of reality, have im- 
pressed our schools to this day. 

The following ten years (1904-14), Dr 
Hailmann spent in the Department of Psychol- 
ogy and Education in the normal schools of Chi- 
cago and Cleveland, Ohio His work here was 
the logical outcome of the many years in which 
he had studied psychology as an applied science 
In this department he demonstrated again the im- 
partial attitude of the scientific mind The radi- 
cal changes of the new psychology found him 
alert and sympathetic, fully able to meet the 
changing ideas of the new century 

Not only did Dr Hailmann achieve distinc- 
tion as an instructor and administrator, but in the 

Wdltam Nicholas Hailmann 261 

field of educational literature he also won de- 
served recognition From 1866 to the end of his 
life his pen was ever active in the cause of edu- 
cation A notable piece of work was his transla- 
tion of Froebel's "Education of Man," which re- 
mams to-day a classic of its kind His "History 
of Pedagogy" (1870) is a scholarly work which 
entailed pioneer research His "Psychology," 
his "Kindergarten Culture," together with all of 
his other publications vitally affected the trend of 
thought in the new education Through news- 
papers also Dr Hailmann found opportunities to 
set forth ideals of citizenship founded on sane 
educational bases It was his constant effort to 
reach, the mass of the people He was thor- 
oughly imbued with the spirit of democracy and 
realized to a degree far in advance of many of his 
contemporaries how important a factor education 
must be in establishing and maintaining our prin- 
ciples of government 

In 1907 Dr Hailmann had married Helena 
Kuhn of Detroit, Michigan When, in 1914, 
physicians advised a change of climate, Dr and 
Mrs Hailmann went to California He accepted 
a position as instructor in the Broadoaks Kinder- 
garten Normal School in Pasadena Here he 
had the opportunity to concentrate his efforts on 

262 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

the problem of the kindergarten, the principles 
and ideals of which he had promoted for fifty 
years In the genial environment of the school 
he found and gave inspiration to all who came 
under his influence Students and colleagues felt 
the greatness of his spirit in these latter days as 
did those who were with him in his earlier years 
He was to the end their wise counsellor, intel- 
ligent leader, and friend His sympathetic ap- 
preciation lifted them to his own plane of vision , 
they knew that he understood their efforts, en- 
tered into their struggle to attain , and by his gen- 
erous recognition of them as co-workers in a great 
cause, he renewed their strength and gave them 
courage to go on 

We who knew Dr Hailmann in his last years 
have the happy memory of him in his little home 
in Pasadena close to the beautiful Arroyo Seco 
and looking up to the grand Sierra Madre Moun- 
tains Surrounded by his new friends and old, 
and with his devoted wife, who anticipated every 
want and gratified every possible wish, he lived 
and worked to the end, which came May 13, 
1920 He was buried m Pasadena's beautiful 
Mountain View Cemetery 

Having served his day and generation, by the gift of 
God he fell asleep . and his works do follow him. 




AT the close of a teachers' meeting in Oak- 
land, California, in 1892, a woman came 
up to me and, speaking with a strong German ac- 
cent, introduced herself as Emma Marwedel 
She was short, rather stout, and about sixty years 
old She had a broad face, a determined mouth, 
and strong, fine eyes which commanded instant 

It was obvious that she was a woman of dis- 
tinction, used to commanding attention, while 
her negligent dress and the attitude of the teach- 
ers showed that she had, for the time being, 
fallen out of the race In a short conversation I 
learned that she was devoted to definite educa- 
tional ideas, thoroughly convinced of their value 
and of their finality, and eager to be of service 
in the world 

During the following months she visited me 
several times at Stanford, speaking to my classes 
and helping me with suggestions in my expen- 

266 Ptoneers of the Kindergarten m Amenca 

mental kindergarten She was the typical ed- 
ucational reformer, and about equally inter- 
ested in the details of kindergarten education 
and in schemes of world regeneration through 

This gave her conversation a philosophic inter- 
est, for she was a woman of wide reading and 
much intensive thinking, but it made her im- 
practical Outside of education and social re- 
forms she had almost no interests, and she seldom 
spoke of her past She told me that Miss Pea- 
body brought her to America, but that when she 
arrived here, opportunity to develop her ideas was 
not found She associated herself with an ad- 
venturei who was developing a colony (I gathered 
that it was a land speculation, somewhere on 
Long Island), and its financial failure determined 
her to seek a new career in Southern California 

She often spoke of Mrs Wiggm and her sister, 
Miss Nora Smith, as among her early students 
in Southern California Later she moved to 
Oakland, where I met her An accident in a 
hotel, where she had fallen on the stairs, yielded 
her damages of about two thousand dollars, and 
on this money she lived in modest lodgings, 
attending educational meetings and seeking 

Emma Marwedel 267 

everywhere to interest people in the kindergarten 

She was deeply interested in Froebel's philoso- 
phy, and she had developed a senes of exercises 
for little children even more fixed and definite 
than that practised by some of the followers of 
Madame Montesson From her scanty capital 
she had spared means to have manufactured 
spheres, cylinders, cubes, and oblong blocks of 
wood each about half an inch in diameter They 
were vividly colored in the seven primary colors, 
and they were perforated so that they could be 
strung on threads or laid on a table in patterns 
Then she had prepared large colored charts, on 
cardboard, giving combinations of these forms 
and colors carefully graduated from the sphere 
alone to elaborate combinations of all the forms 
and colors 

Realizing that the mind develops from the 
simple to the complex, she thought that she could 
prepare it by the use of these symbols so that 
when the child dealt with the realities of every- 
day life his mind would be ready to arrange the 
new content with logical accuracy It was a uni- 
versal application of the practice common among 
older teachers of language, who believe that by 

268 Pioneers o/ the Kvndergaiten in America 

formal exercises in grammar they can prepare the 
student to use words when he wants them 

Her ideal lesson was given to one child, sitting 
opposite her at the table and laying patterns with 
the little wooden symbols at her dictation. "Take 
a red cube," she would say, "lay it directly in 
front of you Take a blue cube, lay it at the 
right of the red cube and against it," and so on 
In these exercises she believed she found full op- 
portunity for realizing all the child's longings and! 
for cultivating all his virtues 

At the same time, Miss Marwedel had a very 
kindly nature and children respected and trusted 
her She recognized the value of music, but re- 
duced it largely to an accompaniment for march- 
ing, clapping, and little chants Free play and 
unrestricted activity might be allowed, but they 
demoralized the mind 

Miss Marwedel made a will leaving her books, 
colored forms, and charts to Dr Elmer E Brown, 
then in California University, and to me ; but she 
did not sign it I was in Europe and Dr Brown 
was away from California when she died When 
I returned, her effects had been sold, and I could 
find no trace of them, they had gone to some 
junk-dealer and were lost 

Personally I have the most pleasant memories 

Emma Marwedel 269 

of Emma Marwedel. She was a lady and a 
scholar. She first interested me in Seguin's writ- 
ings, and she brought me a world vision and phil- 
osophy which, if impractical, was always interest- 
ing As a wandering teacher and scholar she 
must have touched many lives, and in spite of 
failure, she always remained a distinguished 
woman and her indomitable spirit never failed. 



SARAH B INGERSOLL opened her eyes on 
a world awaiting her service, in Cazenovia, 
New York, on December 12, 1834 Until the 
day of her tragic death, December 1 1, 1896, she 
made a world of joy for all those who knew and 
loved her She entered Cazenovia Seminary, a 
coeducational institution, at the age of fourteen 
and was graduated three years later Among her 
class-mates were the late Senator Leland Stan- 
ford of California and the late Philip Armour of 
Chicago She was a cousin of the famous Robert 
Ingersoll and had in a marked degree the same 
gift of eloquence 

She returned to her alma mater for the cele- 
bration of the semi-centennial jubilee in 1875, 
and contributed to the occasion an original poem 
entitled "Retrospect and Prospect " After grad- 
uation, there followed a period of teaching and 
continuation of studies at Troy Female Seminary. 

Sarah B Cooper 271 

While engaged as governess in the family of 
Governor Schley, Augusta, Georgia, she became 
the wife of Halsey Femmore Cooper, a former 
professor of Cazenovia Seminary, then surveyor 
and inspector of the port of Chattanooga by ap- 
pointment of the Piesident of the United States 

Washington, Memphis, St Paul became re- 
spectively the Coopers 5 abiding-places, until in 
1869 they journeyed to San Francisco Here 
Mr Cooper, until the time of his sudden death, 
was connected with the United States Customs 

Of their three children, only one survived child- 
hood, their idolized, merry-hearted daughter Har- 
riet, her mother's mainstay, close companion, and 
efficient secretary The parents and daughter 
were strongly united by deepest bonds of affec- 
tion, which never failed to be the subject of re- 
mark by all who observed them together 

Mrs Cooper was the personification of practical 
Christianity and from her early girlhood was an 
active member and Sunday-school teacher of the 
Presbyterian faith To quote her belief, "Chris- 
tianity is more than a creed It is life baptized 
with the spirit of divine love and helpfulness " 
"Every true Christian life must break forth in 
bounty and benefactions, in a steady effort to 
make the world better and to lift the burden of 

272 Pioneers of the Kvndergarten vn Ameiica 

human woe " "If I would prove to any one that 
God is his Father, I must first prove to him that 
I am his brother " "A religion that has all for a 
future life and nothing for this, has nothing for 
either " 

Notwithstanding their opposing views on reli- 
gion, a strong friendship existed between her and 
her cousin, Robert Ingersoll He inscribed in 
one of his own books to her, "To my dear Cousin 
Sarah, of whom I will say, if all Christians 
were like her this book would never have been 
written " 

Mrs Cooper's literary work began at the age 
of twelve, when she wrote for the village paper, 
and from that time throughout her life she 
was a regular contributor to various leading news- 
papers and periodicals, her reviews and editorial 
work, together with stories and prose articles, giv- 
ing her an established reputation in the literary 
world Not only as teacher, writer, lecturer, but 
as a great Bible-class leader and as officer or mem- 
ber of nineteen different societies, charitable, civic 
and social, did she win distinction She was an 
ardent suffragist, but never a "militant," a pei- 
sonal friend of Susan B Anthony, Dr Anna 
Shaw, Lady Somerset, Frances Willard, a charter 
member of the Associated Chanties of San Fran- 

Sarah B Cooper 278 

Cisco, never missing a meeting, a member of the 
'Press Club, the Century Club, and the first presi- 
dent of the International Kindergarten Union, 
presiding at the meeting held in Chicago during 
the Columbian Exposition in the summer of 1893 
Frances E Willard, a warm personal friend, 
gives this description of her first visit to Mrs 

Her strong sweet individuality I have not seen ex- 
celled, a fragile but symmetric figure somewhat above 
the medium height, simply attired with appiopnateness 
and conspicuous neatness, with poise and movement al- 
together graceful, and while perfectly self-possessed, at 
the furthest removed from being self-assertive Smooth 
broad brow, wavy hair, granite gray-blue eyes, large, 
pensive and loving, nose of the Roman type, dominant 
yet sensitive, a mouth firm yet delicate, full of the smiles 
that follow tears, the unmistakable expression of highest 
force held in check by all the gentlest sentiments 

She illustrated how near the gate of Paradise a mortal 
home may be In her lovely cottage with its spotless 
cleanliness, tasteful rooms individualized so perfectly 
that he who ran might read, in her flower decked dinner 
table, in the "good talk," m her study upstairs packed 
with choice books, with the sunset window overlooking 
the Golden Gate, I stored up memories on my visit to 
yield electric energy for many a day 

In her Bible Class there was no extended monologue , 
but the Socratic style of colloquy, brief, comprehensive, 

274 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

passing rapidly from point to point It characterized the 
most suggestive and helpful hour I ever spent in a Bible 
class all so fresh, simple and earnest If I have ever 
clasped hands with a truth seeker, a disciple of Christ 
and lover of humanity, Sarah B Cooper held out to me 
that loving, loyal hand 

When the first Kindergarten Society was estab- 
lished in San Francisco, in 1878, by a group of 
philanthropic citizens, largely Jewish, inspired 
by the zeal of Felix Adler of New York, John 
Swett, "the Horace Mann of California," then 
principal of the Girls' High School and the 
Teachers' Normal Class, called Mrs Cooper's at- 
tention to the interesting new departure in the 
education of little children, the histonc Silver 
Street Kindergarten under direction of Kate 
Douglas Smith (later the Kate Douglas Wiggm 
of literary fame) 

With keen recognition of its constructive value, 
Mrs Cooper immediately bent her forceful ener- 
gies to extending this educational line of work in 
San Francisco, and as a result the present Golden 
Gate Free Kindergarten Association was started 
in her Bible class. It began under the name of 
the Jackson Street Free Kindergarten Society, 
with one kindergarten This was the second free 
kindergarten west of the Rocky Mountains, and 

Sarah B Cooper 275 

was opened October 6, 1879 It was located in 
the heart of the "Barbary Coast," a thickly popu- 
lated district of corner saloons, small tenements, 
and shops, then rampant with hoodlumism 

Through a series of newspaper articles Mrs 
Cooper brought the new educational movement 
before the public and a warm local interest was 
quickly awakened She called it "a work of faith 
in God and good people " In the second year 
of the work, to the astonishment of public and 
press "that such a thing could happen in the 
nineteenth century," Mrs Cooper for her earnest 
and constant advocacy of the kindergaiten in her 
Bible class was charged, by a deacon of her own 
communion, with heresy At the close of the 
trial resulting in her favor, she transferred her 
large, undenominational Bible class to the Con- 
gregational Church, declaring, "The great waiting 
world needs workers, and I love to work If I 
have any helpful work to do, there is ample room 
m which to do it " 

She won the approval and enlisted the active 
cooperation not alone of her Bible class and her 
many warm personal friends, but of men of large 
affairs, and other kindergartens were added stead- 
ily from that time until 1896 

The gift of the Stanford endowment made in- 

276 Pioneers of tTie Kindergarten in America 

corporation of the Kindergarten Association nec- 
essary, and the new name, "Golden Gate," was 
chosen It was inspired by the mother of the 
present president, third since the organization 
started Miss Virginia Fitch, who has served 
since 1904 

During the period of Mrs Cooper's administra- 
tion, the five Leland Stanford, Jr , Memorial Kin- 
dergartens were started and endowed, and the five 
Phcebe A Hearst classes and the Emily Pope 
Walker Memorial class regularly supported 
These kindergartens form the backbone of the 
present organization The time was one of rapid 
and steady growth, and through the influence of 
her noted annual reports and her vast and wide 
correspondence, kindergartens were established in 
other cities of California, in other states, and even 
in foreign lands 

The sweet contagion of her great spirit of un- 
selfish, energetic devotion spread to all the faith- 
ful helpers she gathered about her and remained 
with them after her passing The daughters, 
even the granddaughters of members of the first 
board of managers are to-day serving as officers 
or directors of the association 

The morning preceding Mrs Cooper's sixty- 
second birthday (December u, 1896), her wide 

Sarah B Cooper 277 

circle of friends was plunged into mourning by 
the untimely end of mother and daughter 

On that day, her faithful Chinese servant, not 
hearing Mrs Cooper attending to her pet bird at 
six o'clock after her regular two hours' work at her 
desk, according to her habit, waited for the ac- 
customed signal to prepare the morning meal 
He waited long, and everything was so quiet he 
was afraid that something had happened He 
went up to her study, knocked, and upon receiv- 
ing no response, went toward the bedroom of 
mother and daughter, smelled a strong odor of 
gas, and gave the alarm 

During the fall of 1896, as a result of overwork 
as superintendent of the Kindergarten Associa- 
tion, Harriet Cooper suffered a physical break- 
down that developed a suicidal tendency Under 
her strong obsession, she longed "to go to Father," 
and, with an undivided affection, "to take 
Mother" "Together we have loved, together 
we have worked, together we have enjoyed, to- 
gether we have sorrowed, together we must cross 
the river," she wrote in her diary. 

With intense mother-love, trusting and pray- 
ing that Harriet's health might be restored, Mrs 
Cooper did not reveal her daughter's condition to 
her most intimate friends until shortly before the 

278 Pioneers of the RinJetgaiten In America 

end, assuring them that she could control the sit- 
uation by loving, gentle persuasion and pleading 
On the altar of passionate shielding love for an 
idolized child did she sacrifice her great, noble 
life, devoted by tongue, pen, and deed, to the wel- 
fare of her fellow-men 

The following tributes at that time from 
widely known and honored men testify to her 
worth and work 

Dr David Starr Jordan, chancellor of Leland 
Stanford, Jr , University, said 

In all Mrs Cooper's work I have been greatly im- 
pressed with her clearness of mind She knew exactly 
what she wished to accomplish and worked for it with 
great wisdom and power Though a woman of strong 
emotions, she was not controlled by them, and she al- 
ways gave the impression of persistent strength 

From the late Dr Martin Kellogg, president of 
the University of California, came this tribute: 

Mrs, Cooper's singular ability as a public speaker 
brought her into a wide range of charitable and religious 
efforts Her Sunday Bible Class was a marvel m itself, 
and proved her acquaintance with the best phases of re- 
ligious thought In whatever public assembly she ap- 
peared, her charm of manner, her earnestness, her range 
of thought, and her womanly enthusiasm made her more 

Sarah B Cooper 279 

than welcome. So large a sphere of usefulness has sel- 
dom been opened to an educated American woman 

The late Dr Jacob Voorsanger, the learned and 
eloquent rabbi of the noted Temple Emmanuel of 
San Francisco, said 

She was in all respects and in the fullest sense a teacher 
of the people The city of San Francisco owes her a debt 
which it can not repay and the State of California should 
rank her name among those of the noblest women To 
such as she the ancients reared temples A teacher of 
Christianity, she has risen above the narrow plane of 
sectarianism She taught no theology because she under- 
stood Christianity to be the religion of humanity She 
loved mankind because she believed in the republic of 

On April 4, 1923, twenty-seven years after her 
death, a simple fountain to the beloved memory 
of Mrs Sarah B Cooper was placed by her many 
friends and admirers in the children's playground 
in Golden Gate Park, San Francisco 

For over thirty years a large elementary school 
attended by children of Italian parentage in the 
northern part of the city, has borne her name, but 
more closely identified with her active, worthy 
life, is the sustained work of the Golden Gate 
Free Kindergarten Association, now in its forty- 
second year "Her works do follow her " 





Then they that feared the Lord spake often one to 
another and the Lord hearkened, and heard it, and a 
book of remembrance was written before him 

THIS is a Book of Remembrance, and in it 
are set down the things of which we spake 
often one to another in the early days of the kin- 
dergarten in the United States It is written not 
only of events, but of persons , not only of heroic 
deeds, but of the heroes who performed them, and 
in this we are thinking forward-looking thoughts, 
for we know that the greatest thing a hero does 
for the world is to be a hero and thereby inspire 
others to heroic living 

The growth of the kindergarten in this coun- 
try was like the lighting of watch-fires on the hills 
from east to west, calling the clans to battle 
The blaze which our beloved and revered Eliza- 
beth Peabody kindled in Massachusetts was seen 

284 Pioneers of the Kindergarten vn America 

and answered from a hundred heights, here and 
there, across the land, and by and by a splendid 
flame soared upward in California Eager eyes 
to watch it and eager hands to tend it were never 
wanting then, and that they still are to be found 
is proved by the latest statistics on the growth of 
Froebel's theories of education in the United 
States, which show that California leads the van 
in the increase m number of its kindergartens per 

The old adage that a good beginning makes a 
good ending is true everywhere, and it is certainly 
true in regard to the Golden State, whose kinder- 
garten beginnings were enthusiastic, eagerly wel- 
comed, and everywhere popular The cause was 
fortunate in having as a leader Kate Douglas 
Wiggin (then Kate Douglas Smith), who, realiz- 
ing the importance of written records in such a 
movement, set forth from the earliest days, in her 
series of delightful and interesting reports, the 
various events that attended the march of kinder- 
garten progress in the West 

The first of these reports, which were widely 
circulated throughout the country and everywhere 
served as useful propaganda, was dated Septem- 
ber i, 1881, and covered the three previous years, 
the first free kindergarten of the West having 


Kate Douglas W%ggm 285 

been established September 1, 1878 Upon its 
title-page the little pamphlet bears the following 

Report of the San Francisco Public Kindergarten Society, 
For the three years ending September i, 1881 

Containing a record of the Silver Street School, the 
first Free Kindergarten west of the Rocky Mountains, 
a history of the subsequent movement arising therefrom, 
throughout the City and State, and a plea for the better 
protection and education of our children. 

In the prefatory note to this report, Mrs Wig- 
gin says, "The era of Free Kindergartens in Cali- 
fornia began with the year 1878, but something 
had been done for the introduction of the system 
into San Francisco a few years earlier" She 
then goes on to speak of the work of Frau Bertha 
Semler, a pupil of Froebel, who came to Califor- 
nia in 1873 an d established a private kindergar- 
ten which was well patronized, though it con- 
tinued for only a year She next describes the 
coming of Miss Emma Marwedel, her own train- 
ing teacher, fiom Washington, D C 3 to Los An- 
geles in 1876, and the establishment of her priv- 
ate kindergarten and training class in that city, 
and goes on to tell the story of the movement in 
San Francisco which resulted in the establish- 

280 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

ment of free kindergartens in California The 
report says 

In the summer of 1878, Dr Felix Adler, well known 
as the President of the Society for Ethical Culture in 
New York, came to San Francisco for the purpose of 
delivering a course of lectures Dr Adler is widely 
respected for his various philanthropies, among which 
may be mentioned the Adler Free Kindergarten, which 
he has founded and in which he is deeply interested 
During his visit he convinced several of his friends, 
prominent men and women of San Francisco, that a 
movement of the same kind, for the good of the rising 
generation, should be organized here Judge Heyden- 
feldt, Mr S Nicklesburgh, Mr Julius Jacobs, Dr 
Hirschfelder, Miss Emma Marwedel, Mrs H Behrendt, 
and Mrs Gottig (I give all the names on the roll of 
honor) were among those who lent their cordial aid to 
the new enterprise Their enthusiasm soon convinced 
those with whom they came in contact, and on the 
evening of July 23, 1878, a meeting was called at the 
Baldwin Hotel for the purpose of forming an association 
which was shortly incorporated as the San Fiancisco 
Public Kindergarten Society 

Securing a number of subscribing and life members, 
the Society obtained funds for its active work, renting 
its quarters on Silver Street, near Thud Street, buying 
its furniture and apparatus, and reaching out its kindly 
hand toward the tiny youngsters residing in the dismal 
locality known as Tar Flat 

Kate Douglas Wiggm 287 

Thus far the report of long ago It is as if the 
stage were set, the company assembled, and we 
were waiting for the leading lady Let us hear 
what this youthful personage has to say about it 
in a few paiagraphs from "My Garden of 
Memory," her lately issued autobiography 

It should first be explained, however, that after 
the completion of her course of training with Miss 
Marwedel, Miss Kate Smith (Mrs Wiggm) had 
opened a private kindergarten in Santa Barbara, 
California, lodging it in a picturesque old adobe 
house known as the "Swallows' Nest " 

The autobiographer writes 

We were a very happy family in the Swallows' Nest 
that summer, and we taught one another more than any 
of us realized The only lack I ever felt was that I 
longed consciously for a larger group of children, and 
I had a vision of how wonderful it would be to plant 
a child-garden m some dreary, poverty-stricken place 
in a large city, a place swarming with un-mothered, un- 
defended, under-nourished child-life 

This was the vaguest of visions, for I had never had 
the smallest experience with crowded neighborhoods, or 
with any but carefully brought up, well-trained, silk- 
stockinged children, not even having attended a large 
public school with its varied types of foreign birth or 
foreign parentage 

288 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

Had I known it, at this very time the way was open- 
ing for me to do the thing for which I was half- 
consciously groping 

Felix Adler, the noted preacher, teacher, lecturer, 
author, philanthropist, came to San Fiancisco from New 
York in the summer of 1878, and in a brief visit gath- 
ered a company of men and women interested in edu- 
cation, forming a Board of Directors, which assumed 
the task of opening the first free kindergarten west of 
the Rocky Mountains There were but few trained km- 
dergartners from which to choose, and I was called from 
Santa Barbara to organize the work 

How gladly I packed my belongings and set out alone 
and unattended to undertake that Herculean task ' How 
little I knew of what was to be done and how best to dm 
it ' I was only a girl , but I felt that a kingdom awaited 
me m that unknown city I cannot do better than tran- 
scribe in these pages my youthful record of those days, 
for that was of the moment, and the heart, the soul of 
an experience cannot be easily re-created after a long 
lapse of time. 

Those who have read Mrs Wiggm's well- 
known pamphlet "The Girl and the Kingdom," 
which is also included in the autobiography, know 
of some of the happenings, "from grave to gay, 
from lively to severe," of those first days, weeks, 
months, in the famous Silver Street Kindergar- 
tens They form the background of her books 
"The Story of Patsy" and "Marm Lisa," which 

Sate Douglas Wiggm 289 

everywhere preached eloquent sermons on the 
value of the new educational gospel , they gave 
solid worth to her popular addresses on the "Re- 
lation of the Kindergarten to Social Reform," 
the "Relation of the Kindergarten to the Public 
School," "The Art and Mission of a Kmdergart- 
ner," etc , they furnished the seasoning of ex- 
perience to her notable series of reports , and they 
laid the foundation for the educational books 
afterward published in collaboration with her 
sister, Nora Archibald Smith 

San Francisco's new experiment in education 
was successful from the first, for in the friendly 
climate of California all things come quickly to 
fruition Visitors became frequent, in the first 
year more than seventeen hundred callers being 
registered, among them reporters from almost 
every newspaper in the state, and correspondents 
from many Eastern and foreign papers Pro- 
fessors from the State University often came to 
take notes, and Mr John Swett and Mrs M W 
Kincaid of the San Francisco high and normal 
schools were eaily visitors and soon became firm 
friends, sending their students to Silver Street to 
observe Froebel's educatiomil theories in opera- 
tion, and to hold up the hands of the eager and 
enthusiastic leader in the movement 

290 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

In the historic first report, of which I have 
been speaking, Mrs Wiggm says 

In the spring of 1879, we welcomed one day, for the 
first time, a sweet-faced woman whose sympathy was 
evident before she had been in the room ten minutes It 
was not much longer than that before she turned, with 
tears in her eyes, and clasping me by the hand, said 
"Why did I not know of this work before 9 Why did 
nobody tell me* 2 It is the most beautiful thing I ever 
saw Let me help you from this moment " 

From that time the children of California and 
the kindergarten cause had an untiring friend and 
ally in Mrs Sarah B Cooper, who, until her 
death, worked unceasingly with voice and pen 
for the furtherance of Froebel's principles of 

In 1880, when Mrs Wiggm's work had be- 
come widely known and well established, she 
opened a training class for kindergartners, in re- 
sponse to numerous appeals This was the Cali- 
fornia Kindergarten Training School, which was 
continued until 1906, when that convulsion of na- 
ture, the San Francisco earthquake, and the subse- 
quent fire, destroyed the old Silver Street build- 
ing, the furniture and apparatus of its three kin- 
dergartens and normal-class room, and many of 
the books and records pertaining to the work. 

Kate Douglas Wiggvn, 291 

Before opening the training school, Mrs Wig- 
gin visited private and public kindergartens 
throughout the United States, and she mentions in 
her records that she consulted Miss Peabody of 
Boston, Mrs Aldnch of the Florence School, Pro- 
fessor Hailmann of Detroit, Miss Blow of St 
Louis, General Eaton, and Mrs Pollock of Wash- 
ington, in framing a suitable and thorough course 
of study 

For the first experimental year of training, 
Miss Nora Archibald Smith returned from 
Mexico and Arizona, where she had been doing 
pioneer work among Spanish-speaking children; 
and after her graduation took charge of the Silver 
Street kindergartens, the elder sister retiring from 
active work among the little people and devoting 
herself to the Training School After some years 
of experience and further study, Miss Nora Smith 
began to assist in this work also, and finally, on 
Mrs Wiggm's removal from California, became 
the head of both kindergartens and normal class 

The California Kindergarten Training School 
beloved name which still warms the hearts of 
its four hundred graduates whenever it is seen ' 
was a happy and encouraging success from the 
very beginning, for the enthusiasm of its leader 
irradiated every common task and lighted an an- 

292 Pioneers of the Kindergarten in America 

swenng spark m every heart That such enthu- 
siasm is not exceptional, but characteristic of most 
kindergarten training teachers and training stu- 
dents, we gladly acknowledge, for there is unques- 
tionably something in Froebel's theories that ap- 
peals to every woman, young or old, and she who 
has once grasped their inner meaning has reached 
a higher and a broader outlook upon life 

Mrs Wiggm's graduates, as well as those of 
iMiss Marwedel, who still continued her training 
work, early formed themselves (1883) into an 
association known as the California Froebel So- 
ciety, which was devoted to the further study of 
kindergarten and the dissemination of FroebePs 
principles of education The meetings of this 
society were always interesting and well con- 
ducted, and many of Mrs Wiggm's addresses on 
the kindergarten were published and circulated 
under its auspices The free kindergarten work 
of San Francisco had now become so well and 
favorably known that Mrs Wiggm was fre- 
quently called upon to deliver these and kindred 
addresses at county and state teachers' conven- 
tions, and thus more converts were constantly 
made for the work 

The graduates of the California Kindergarten 
Training School obviously proved themselves de- 

Kate Douglas Wiggin 293 

voted missionaries in spreading the new gospel, 
foi when the first ten years of the work had been 
passed they were not only teaching in thirty-two 
kindergartens of San Francisco and Oakland, but 
had inaugurated the work in thirty-three towns 
of the state, two in Oregon, three in Washington 
Territory, two in Nevada, and one each in British 
Columbia, Arizona, Utah, and Texas 

In her autobiography, already mentioned, Mrs 
Wiggin gives a tribute to her "girls," as we all 
are wont to call those jewels in our tiaming- 
school crowns 

The four hundred young pioneers who first and last 
went out from our Training School with spirits aflame 
for service, have preserved its unwritten history in 
their hearts and lives, and when we meet one another 
now and then, at all-too-rare intervals, it is with some- 
thing more than a mere hand-clasp, for we know that 
what we learned together in that well-remembered spot 
made life more fruitful and precious to us 

It will surprise no one who reads this Book of 
Remembrance to learn that by the time all these 
things had happened, the youthful leader of the 
work had drawn so freely upon hei stores of 
spiritual, mental, and physical strength, that they 
were temporarily almost exhausted She had 

294 Pioneers of the Kindergarten m America 

freely given of herself to the cause, and though 
the writer of this chronicle has carefully chilled 
her pen till it can scarcely trace a line, lest she 
be accused of over-enthusiasm, yet she must 
finally and solemnly declare that the work and 
the worker were equally worthy of honor 

By this time, too, the popularity of Mrs Wig- 
gin's books had shown her that anothei career was 
opening to her and that hearts were waiting 
everywhere to welcome her dream children The 
kindergartens and the training school were now 
in the hands of her sister, who was wholly united 
with her in ideas and ideals, and the already suc- 
cessful author could "follow the gleam" where- 
ever it might lead her Mrs Wiggin writes 

I am not at all sure, even now, about the precise 
quality of such powers as I possess, although I am well 
aware of my deficiencies as an author When I re- 
call those marvelous days in California, first with chil- 
dren, their mothers, fathers, and homes, then with large 
classes of young women, and with many audiences m 
Western villages and towns, I half believe that Nature 
intended me not for a writer but for a teacher I could 
always teach a thing whether I knew it or not, and I 
think I might always have remained a teacher had not 
my nerves been worn threadbare by "pioneering" At 
all events, I thank God for every enriching day spent 
with children 

Kate Douglas Wtggtn 295 

There is not a woman whose work is set down 
in this Book of Remembrance, nor one who has 
contributed to its pages, but would offer the same 
prayer of thanksgiving, for we all believe with 
Elizabeth Peabody that "to be a kmdergartner is 
working with God at the very fountain of artis- 
tic and intellectual power and moral character " 



ON August 24, 1923, Kate Douglas Wiggin 
(Mrs. George C Riggs) passed into the 
Eternal Rest She had gone to England for rest 
and change of scene, and was taken ill on the 
voyage She recovered from this illness, but later 
succumbed to bronchial pneumonia and died at 
Harrow, England At her request her ashes were 
brought home and scattered upon the Saco River, 
in Maine She had loved the river from her 
childhood and it was associated with many happy 
days in her later life 

Memorial services were held for her in Hollis, 
Maine, her summer home, and in many other 
places where her name is known and held in rev- 

No other author in our country has been so well 
loved No other has received more tender trib- 
utes An editorial speaks of her as the author 
of "Rebecca," and says of her , 

'Kate Douglas Wiggm^A Tribute 297 

By the later generation of her readers Kate Douglas 
Wiggin will doubtless be best remembered as the creator 
of "Rebecca " To the earlier generations she will surely 
be know,! as the author of "The Birds' Christmas 
Carol" that classic of childhood which has been trans- 
lated into most of the important languages of the world 
and has been printed in Braille for the delight of those 
who can see only through their fingertips To still 
others she will be the sympathetic interpreter of Froebel 
and the apostle of kindergarten work in both private and 
public schools And there are those who will perhaps 
remember most vividly her plays, her singing, her read- 
ings from her own books, her performances upon the 
piano, or "Penelope," or "Timothy," or "Waitstill Bax- 
ter," or yet the "Tales of Wonder" and the "Magic 
Casements " 

A many-sided woman was she, and in every varied 
phase were the invariable elements of intense humanity 
and unfailing charm She lived in an age of extraor- 
dinary activity and fecundity in both education and 
authorship, but among her contemporaries there were few 
who contributed more than she in quantity, or better than 
she in wholesome quality Not many writers of her 
day gave unmixed pleasure to a wider circle of readers, 
and of none can it more confidently be said that they 
wrote not a line which would better have been left un- 

Mrs Riggs had just before her death completed 
her autobiography, "My Garden of Memory" 
The story of her life is written in this book It 

298 Pioneers of the Kindergarten vn Amertca 

is also written in the hearts of many children, of 
many teachers, and of many readers to whom she 
has revealed the secret of happiness 

She has written many pages in the Book of 
Remembrance for the kindergarten world The 
pages are illumined by her joyous spirit and by 
her love of children